2 Plus 1 Emerging Model of Professional Development for Teachers

This article introduces the two contrasting models of professional development for teachers, which I used as one of the bases for the development of the customized professional development model in 2011.

At that time, I searched for related literature; articles on models of professional development are difficult to come by. It was like trying to find a needle in a haystack. But then my diligence paid off when I found an article containing the models of professional development (Smith et al., 2003).

I describe two of those models in the table below. These are Traditional Professional Development and Job-Embedded Professional Development Models. Based on the findings of my study and the first two models, I came up with my own. I refer to it as the Customized Professional Development Model, which I contrast with the two models I read about.

professional development for teachers

Please see the first three columns for the comparison and contrast of the two models. Then take a look at column 4, which is about the enhanced professional development model.

The Different Models of Professional Development for Teachers

The models of professional development for teachers include traditional professional development, job-embedded professional development, and the customized professional development model proposed by the author as an innovation. The following table compares the three models using features, primary goals, location, intensity, common format, and content.

 Features Traditional Professional Development Job-Embedded Professional DevelopmentCustomized Professional Development Model (Alvior, 2011)
Primary GoalsIncrease individual teacher’s general knowledge, skills, and teaching competency. Introduce new instructional models or methodologies.Improve student learning and help teachers with the specific teaching problems they face.Increase teacher’s knowledge, skills and teaching competencies. Improve student learning.
Location (“site” is school or program)Mostly off-siteOn-siteOff-site, On-site,ICT-based
IntensitySingle session or seriesLong-term, ongoingSeries, long-term, on-going
Common format of this professional developmentWorkshops, seminars, conferencesStudy circles, research practitioners, inquiry projectsThe identified professional development activities in this study.
Content for this professional developmentRange of knowledge and skills teachers should know and be able to do (competencies, special issues, new approaches to teaching).Student thinking and learning (examining student work), teaching problems.Combinations, eclectic approach

The table also shows the differences between the traditional and job-embedded models. According to Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin (1995) and Hirsch (2009), job-embedded professional development (JEPD) refers to teacher learning that is grounded in day-to-day teaching practice. The model aims to enhance teachers’ content-specific instructional practices with the intent of improving student learning.

The model in column 4, actually combines the two contrasting models. The design of the latter model is for continuing professional development (CPD) for teachers. Further, I added information and communications technology or ICT for a location to address the needs of the 21st century.

Another notable contribution in the study is the list of professional development activities that teachers may choose as their professional development activities.

To know more about the activities, please read, A Research on the Professional Development Model for Teachers.

Where is 2n1?

The next time you hear “2n1,” would you think it is a coffee? No, it isn’t. It is a professional development model for teachers based on the two models and mine that I have described in this article. Try any of these models to help improve teacher performance.


Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi delta kappan76(8), 597-604.

Hirsch, E., & Church, K. (2009). North Carolina teacher working conditions survey brief: Teacher working conditions are student learning conditions. The University of California at Santa Cruz: New Teacher Center. Retrieved June14, 2011.

Smith, C., Hofer, J., Gillespie, M., Solomon, M., & Rowe, K. (2003). How teachers change: A study of professional development. Retrieved 19 June, 2010 from http://www.ncsall.net/fileadmin/resources/research/brief25.pdf

© 2014 December 25 M. G. Alvior


  1. UniversityInCebu September 10, 2015
    • Mary Alvior, PhD in Curriculum Development September 11, 2015