2 Plus 1 Emerging Model of Professional Development for Teachers

This article introduces the two contrasting models of professional development for teachers which I used as one of the bases for the development of the customized professional development model in 2011.

At that time I searched for related literature, articles on models of professional development are difficult to come by. It was like trying to find a needle in a haystack. But then my diligence paid off when I found an article containing the models of professional development (Smith et al., 2003).

I describe two of those models in the table below. These are Traditional Professional Development and Job-Embedded Professional Development Models. Based on the findings of my study and the first two models, I came up with my own. I refer to it as the Customized Professional Development Model which I contrast with the two models I read about.

Please see the first 3 columns for the comparison and contrast of the two models. Then take a look at column 4, which is about the enhanced professional development model.

The Different Models of Professional Development for Teachers

 Features Traditional Professional Development Job-Embedded Professional DevelopmentCustomized Professional Development Model (Alvior, 2011)
Primary GoalsIncrease individual teacher’s general knowledge, skills, and teaching competency. Introduce new instructional models or methodologies.Improve student learning and help teachers with the specific teaching problems they face.Increase teacher’s knowledge, skills and teaching competencies. Improve student learning.
Location (“site” is school or program)Mostly off-siteOn-siteOff-site, On-site,ICT-based
IntensitySingle session or seriesLong-term, ongoingSeries, long-term, on-going
Common format of this professional developmentWorkshops, seminars, conferencesStudy circles, research practitioners, inquiry projectsThe identified professional development activities in this study.
Content for this professional developmentRange of knowledge and skills teachers should know and be able to do (competencies, special issues, new approaches to teaching).Student thinking and learning (examining student work), teaching problems.Combinations, eclectic approach

The table shows the differences between the traditional and job-embedded models as to the following features: goals, location, intensity, format and contents. The model in column 4, actually combines the two contrasting models. The design of the latter model is for continuing professional development (CPD) for teachers. Further, I added information and communications technology or ICT for location in order to address the needs for the 21st century.

Another notable contribution in the study is the list of professional development activities which teachers may choose as their professional development activities.

To know more about the activities, please read, A Research on the Professional Development Model for Teachers.

So, the next time you hear “2n1”, would you think it is a coffee? No, it isn’t but a professional development model for teachers based on the two models I have described in this article.


 Smith, C., Hofer, J., Gillespie, M., Solomon, M., & Rowe, K. (2003). How teachers change: A study of professional development. Retrieved 19 June, 2010 from http://www.ncsall.net/fileadmin/resources/research/brief25.pdf

© 2014 December 25 M. G. Alvior

2 thoughts on “2 Plus 1 Emerging Model of Professional Development for Teachers”

  1. Hi Mary Alvior,

    Another great article.Indeed those past models were good during their time, but as time goes by many changes had already taken its place and what we need right now is also to adopt and apply the changes to make this models better. The model you did were really good.

    1. Hi! Yeah, Thank you so much. I owe that model to my beloved dissertation adviser, Dr. Purita Bilbao of West Visayas State University who encouraged me to explore in that field, and to all my panel members. It was a hard work, indeed!

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