Conceptual Framework: A Step by Step Guide on How to Make One

What is a conceptual framework? How do you prepare one? This article defines the meaning of conceptual framework and lists the steps on how to prepare it. A simplified example is added to strengthen the reader’s understanding.

In the course of preparing your research paper as one of the requirements for your course as an undergraduate or graduate student, you will need to write the conceptual framework of your study. The conceptual framework steers the whole research activity. The conceptual framework serves as a “map” or “rudder” that will guide you towards realizing the objectives or intent of your study.

What then is a conceptual framework in the context of empirical research? The next section defines and explains the term.

Definition of Conceptual Framework

A conceptual framework represents the researcher’s synthesis of literature on how to explain a phenomenon. It maps out the actions required in the course of the study given his previous knowledge of other researchers’ point of view and his observations on the subject of research.

In other words, the conceptual framework is the researcher’s understanding of how the particular variables in his study connect with each other. Thus, it identifies the variables required in the research investigation. It is the researcher’s “map” in pursuing the investigation.

As McGaghie et al. (2001) put it: The conceptual framework “sets the stage” for the presentation of the particular research question that drives the investigation being reported based on the problem statement. The problem statement of a thesis presents the context and the issues that caused the researcher to conduct the study.

The conceptual framework lies within a much broader framework called theoretical framework. The latter draws support from time-tested theories that embody the findings of many researchers on why and how a particular phenomenon occurs.

Step by Step Guide on How to Make the Conceptual Framework

Before you prepare your conceptual framework, you need to do the following things:

  1. Choose your topic. Decide on what will be your research topic. The topic should be within your field of specialization.
  2. Do a literature review. Review relevant and updated research on the theme that you decide to work on after scrutiny of the issue at hand. Preferably use peer-reviewed and well-known scientific journals as these are reliable sources of information.
  3. Isolate the important variables. Identify the specific variables described in the literature and figure out how these are related. Some abstracts contain the variables and the salient findings thus may serve the purpose. If these are not available, find the research paper’s summary. If the variables are not explicit in the summary, get back to the methodology or the results and discussion section and quickly identify the variables of the study and the significant findings. Read the TSPU Technique on how to skim efficiently articles and get to the important points without much fuss.
  4. Generate the conceptual framework. Build your conceptual framework using your mix of the variables from the scientific articles you have read. Your problem statement serves as a reference in constructing the conceptual framework. In effect, your study will attempt to answer a question that other researchers have not explained yet. Your research should address a knowledge gap.

Example of a Conceptual Framework

Statement number 5 introduced in an earlier post titled How to Write a Thesis Statement will serve as the basis of the illustrated conceptual framework in the following examples.

Thesis statement: Chronic exposure to blue light from LED screens (of computer monitors and television) deplete melatonin levels thus reduce the number of sleeping hours among middle-aged adults.

The study claims that blue light from the light emitting diodes (LED) inhibit the production of melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep and wake cycles. Those affected experience insomnia; they sleep less than required (usually less than six hours), and this happens when they spend too much time working on their laptops or viewing the television at night.

conceptual framework
Fig. 1 The research paradigm illustrating the researcher’s conceptual framework.

Notice that the variables of the study are explicit in the paradigm presented in Figure 1. In the illustration, the two variables are 1) number of hours devoted in front of the computer, and 2) number of hours slept at night. The former is the independent variable while the latter is the dependent variable. Both of these variables are easy to measure. It is just counting the number of hours spent in front of the computer and the number of hours slept by the subjects of the study.

Assuming that other things are constant during the performance of the study, it will be possible to relate these two variables and confirm that indeed, blue light emanated from computer screens can affect one’s sleeping patterns. (Please read the article titled “Do you know that the computer can disturb your sleeping patterns?” to find out more about this phenomenon) A correlation analysis will show whether the relationship is significant or not.

e-Book on Conceptual Framework Development

Due to the popularity of this article, I wrote an e-Book designed to suit the needs of beginning researchers. This e-Book answers the many questions and comments regarding the preparation of the conceptual framework. I provide five practical examples based on existing literature to demonstrate the procedure.

So, do you want a more detailed explanation with five practical, real-life examples? Get the 52-page e-Book NOW!


McGaghie, W. C.; Bordage, G.; and J. A. Shea (2001). Problem Statement, Conceptual Framework, and Research Question. Retrieved on January 5, 2015 from

©2015 January 5 P. A. Regoniel

Cite this article as: Regoniel, Patrick A. (January 5, 2015). Conceptual Framework: A Step by Step Guide on How to Make One. In SimplyEducate.Me. Retrieved from

549 thoughts on “Conceptual Framework: A Step by Step Guide on How to Make One”

  1. I have been trying all these years (2 years) to come out with a research proposal for a Doctoral Programme but with great difficulty. Your presentation is a wow! Very useful. A thousand thanks. Can I have your email?

    1. Hello, this is a good piece of advice. I have also been wondering what my conceptual framework would look like. My topic is civic competence and popular participation in decentralization. I am right to state my independent variable as civic competence and dependent as popular participation?

      1. Am also wondering how my conceptual framework would look topic is consumer perception about locally produced rice. I need help pls

      2. Thank you very Ronald! My eyes are open on your important factors, This a new and very Clear explanation. If I received this information I would not have received these remarks which divested my spirit, The conceptual frame work is very poor”

    2. hi my research title Airway secretion removal in mechanically ventilated patients nurses knowledge and practices in ICU. what are my conceptual model

      1. Hi I was writing my final research paper, and I was wondering was there more than one type of conceptual frame work.

      2. Hi, My research title is called transformation leaderships toward the teacher retention. What are my conceptual model for this topic.

    3. I cannot discern whats the independent variable and the dependent variable in my study. my title is Counseling Service and Etiology of Learning Disabilities. Can you help me?

      1. I am having difficulties in a certaining my conceptual framework, my topic is ‘The interplay between indemnity and subrogation in eliminating unjust enrichment in insurance contracts”

      2. Dear Gel Paza.
        The first step is to understand what variables are.Next is to identify which one affects the other.This will enable you Identify the dependent and independent variables.Take for example level of income and level of domestic expenditure.Here the variables are level of INCOME and Level of Expenses.If an increase in level of income results in to an increase in expenses,then level of expenses depends on level of income and level of expenses will thus be Dependent variable .Level of income will be the independent variable.

      3. Basically, independent variables are not affected by other variables. Instead, they affect dependent variables. Eg sex, age, condom use etc. On the other hand, dependent variables are affected or caused by other variables. Eg, STIs. To give an example; the more you practise unprotected sex, the higher the chances of contracting STIs.

      4. Dear Sir Patrick ,
        Iam making my Conceptual framework and I dont know how to go about it can you help me please. My topic is: THE IMPACT OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ON THE STUDENTS READINESS TO FACE THE WORLD OF WORK, A BASIS FOR AN ENHANCED RELIGOUS PROGRAM FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

      5. The Best thing to do in other to come up with the variables is to do a literature review on the topic you have selected. U can use google scholar to read articles on your topic.

    4. Please help me to make conceptual framework with my toipic ” Impact of employees motivation on organizational effectiveness

      1. Hello sir, please am a beginner in writing theis and I need help regarding my conceptual framework. Am looking at impacts of climate change on poverty, the place of women. Am so confused please assist me. Thanks

    1. Hi sir I’m a beginner of this thesis and please help. I could understand what is my conceptual framework. My topic is Effectiveness of Career Guidance Orientation to Secondary Students. How can I write a conceptual framework about it?

      1. I follow the step Sir but I was confused if my conceptual framework is right. Thank you for the article

    2. Dear Patrick, My research question is on ‘Performance Management and Personal Learning and Development: Does Feedback Received During Performance Discussion Promote Learning and Career Development?’
      From reading the above, I understand that my independent variables would be the aspecs or items that will contribute towards employee seeking learning/career development, e.g. quality of feedback, supervisor support, org culture, self-motivation to learining etc and my dependent variable would then be actual learning and career development that the person engaged in. Please advise. Thanks and regards,

      1. hi can you makr a conceptual framework about in our topic please this is our topic the performance of computer system servicing student in installing cables

      2. hi can you makr a conceptual framework about in our topic please this is our topic the performance of computer system servicing student in installing cables

    3. Sir, I am one of your reader on site and I am thankful for luckily browsing this site for I am too much worried about my thesis.I don’t know how to construct my conceptual thesis title is extent participation of Department of agrarian reform in the infrastructure projects of sultan kudarat.can you help me identify my dependent and independent variables?

  2. hi can you also help me. my research is about the role of social media on evolution of fandom into fanaticism… what could be a good conceptual framework for this? pls.

      1. help just confused.what should i consider as conceptual framework when constructing a research on factors that hinder successful implementation of catholic teaching on natural family planning methods

  3. beautiful, I am helped a great deal. Mine is not an academic proposal but a proposal of Home based care for Non Communicable Diseases cases. I therefore think my proposed interventions are independent variable and my specific goals being dependent variables, not sure though.

  4. Dear Rabilo, what you intend to do is to provide an intervention, and that is home based care. Maybe what you want to know is if people prefer this as an option for patients who have non-communicable diseases. Thanks for your feedback.

  5. hi, can you help me with my thesis ? it’s about Utilization of Multimedia Gadgets Specifically the Smart Phones during Class Hours. what will be my conceptual framework for that? thanks in advance.

  6. Hi can you help me with my thesis, just the conceptual framework and Theoretical please hehe my topic is all about How could managers use accounting knowledge in making better decisions.

  7. Dear Apple and Mia, to develop your conceptual framework, as this article suggests, you will need to read relevant literature about your topic. I cannot do that for you. You need to read a lot to be familiar with current theories in your line of investigation. Just use the principles given here to guide you in developing your frameworks. The literature review should be done before you draw your conceptual framework as this will help you to become familiar with your research topic. You may read this article to guide you in writing your literature review:

  8. hello this is a good article 🙂 but then im still confused. ;( my study is a proposal of a mobile commerce application based on the consumers wants and needs.

  9. Hi Sir! Good day. I find it interesting and useful. Can I ask you something? What would be our conceptual framework if our topic is about tourism student?

  10. Good Day Sir! I would like to ask what would be our conceptual framework if our topic is Levels of Temperament, Aggressive Behavior and Stress of Commuters Experiencing Heavy traffic in EDSA. I’m slightly confused but anything would be much appreciated sir, thanks in advance.

    1. Dear Jester, I believe that what you intend to do is to see how the commuter’s perception of traffic in EDSA influences his/her attitude such as level of temperament, aggressive behavior, and level of stress however you want these variables measured. People vary in their perception of things so that perception will be your dependent variable. The attitude factors mentioned are independent variables. If you have a better measure of traffic such as the waiting time of commuters at the MRT or LRT stations, then I believe that would be a better measure.

  11. Hello! I just want to ask what would be my conceptual framework if my topic is about ebook and textbook. Please help me with this. Thank you in advance!

  12. I see, you should make a comparison between IT students using ebooks and those using textbooks as reference or teaching materials. Your dependent variable will be their academic performance, say their exam score or grade in the subject where the textbook/ebook is used. But of course you have to define the difference between textbook and ebook because an ebook could be a textbook. Maybe what you mean by textbook is a printed reference material. And there should be a basis (review of literature) that serves as the theoretical framework of your study. For example, literature or theory explaining why ebooks are better than textbooks or vice-versa.

  13. Hi can you also help me; my research is all about the natural insect repellent, what could be a good conceptual framework for this? pls….

  14. Hello, I have troubles on my framework. My topic is “A comparison between the content analyses of selected campus paper;s editorial on the Papal Visit: Basis for a proposed editorial policy guide”. Please help me identify the framework. Thank you!

  15. Dear Audrey, you will need to define clearly the objectives of your comparison. Why do you want to compare the editorial content of selected campus papers in the first place? Editorials are the authors’ viewpoints on the Papal Visit. Shall those viewpoints be subject to editorial policy? Is there a need to subject editorial content to some kind of policy? I hope these questions will somehow bring you towards the development of your framework.

  16. hey sir can you help me to make a conceptual framework my topic is about factors affecting structures(like buildings dams, brigdes etc) to be easily destroyed….

    1. hey sir can you help me to make a conceptual framework my topic is about LEVEL OF EFFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE AND TRADITIONAL BOOKING METHOD AS PERCEIVED BY THE TOURISTS

    2. hello this is a good article dearI am a srilankan student. Pl. can you help me to develop conceptual framework for my research. my topic is

      An Investigation into Essential Learning Competencies to be acquired by Sri Lankan Primary School Students and the Interventions Needed to Students who fail to achieve them.

  17. So impressed by this article,may you help on what my conceptual framework would be in the topic ”school rules and regulations and students’ discipline”

    1. Hi thank you for the very useful information. I would like to clarify the meaning of independent and dependent variables? and what is the difference of comparative and theoretical framework? can you give me a sample comparative framework.

      Thank you.

  18. Good afternoon,
    Sorry to bother you – excellent article and you are very kind helping others. I’ve tried to get answers from what you have told others but as this is the first conceptual framework I have put together, I’m struggling. My dissertation is on the impact that Wellbeing has on company performance.

    Q1: Am I right in thinking that we only include the factors that will be discussed in the dissertation (ie, if I am not looking at external factors, I don’t include it in my framework? Or do I acknowledge that they are there?)

    Q2: Would I be correct to start with impacts on Wellbeing (single arrow towards it) then have arrows out of Wellbeing with the benefits (reduced turnover, customer satisfaction etc). From those benefits, single arrows point to company performance? So research will look to prove all the links I have made in the middle (i.e. Customer NPS for increased satisfaction)

    I hope that makes sense and you can help.

    Thank you!

    1. Dear Jordan, here are my answers based on my understanding of your proposed study:
      Question 1: There are many studies done on the impact of well-being on employee performance (e.g. less absenteeism, passionate work attitude, etc.). And of course, you have to define what you mean by well-being here, to make it measurable. It may be context or non-context specific. Before coming up with your conceptual framework, you should come up with an argument (your thesis) based on your review of related literature. Which among those factors you studied appear to be well grounded? Hence, it is you who will determine which specific variables you will examine given your scope and limitations. There are many factors that influence company performance, but which ones really matter? The findings of other authors serve as your guide.
      Question 2: Your question is a bit tricky as I may misunderstand your explanation. My understanding of your description looks like this:
      –>Impacts on Wellbeing–>Benefits (turnover, etc.)–>Company performance
      It seems that you are not clear of your unit of analysis, i.e., will you examine the individuals in that company or will you examine the company as an organization? Is there such thing as company well-being? Do you have a way to measure it? If your focus is not the organization but the individuals that compose it, then your dependent variable should be employee performance. By the way, how will you measure impact if it is part of your framework? Probably what you mean is:
      Well-being (benefits such as job-related factors that affect well-being) –> Employee performance (e.g. job performance)
      Well, this can really be lengthy. I hope that somehow helps you.

      1. Teacher satisfaction-committment-teacher efficacy.L have this as my conceptual framework.How do l write a research topic out this.3 examples please help me

    What would be the conceptual framework of this?please help me..

    Thank you so much…

    1. Thank you so much for your responce sir…i apologize to what ive said that not clear..if you dont mind can i send to you the chapters that already done to be more clearly

  20. Good morning (( its morning here). I have a study entitled ” Isolation of S. aureus from nasal cavities of dogs”. I’d like to ask if whats a good conceptual framework for this?

  21. hi Mr.patrick

    just want to clarify about framework my topic will be validity and reliability of outdoor education instrument for autism student. so my iv will be autism student and dv will be outdoor education instrument? please correct me if wrong. So for this my conceptual frame work must tell how the process will be done right example muz have samples, method, location ist correct?

  22. am very impressed with the knowledge being shared here. My research topic is An investigation to determine the value of on-the-job training in work performance by police officer performing guard duties at VIP residences. am kindly requesting assistance in conceptual framework and theoretical review

  23. Hi I’m in an attempt to make a conceptual framework for my graduate program is it okay if I send it to you maybe you could give me some advice? I’m really having a hard time with it, I would really appreciate it.

  24. Hi sir, I am now in the process of doing my conceptual framework for my strategic management paper entitled,
    Strengthening the Talent Acquisition strategies of my organization. I will appreciate it very much if you can help me with it. Thank you.

    1. sir may you send me conceptual fram work of the topic analysis of problems faced by teacher in teaching where as my variables are teacher pupil methidology and intuctional material material

  25. Research Title: The employed residents of Branggay Polomolok, Columbio, Sultan Kudarat on their level of Job Satisfaction and Dole on their satisfaction with the performance of the employed residents
    Research Questions
    Is the health care benefits of the employed residents enough?
    Is the rent of 12 thousand per year and per hectare enough for them?
    Is the salary of the employed residents enough for living?
    Is Dole, as the employer, satisfied on the performance of the employed residents?

    Research Objectives
    If the research shows that both parties are satisfied with what each are doing, then the paper may suggest ways to maintain a good relationship between them.
    If the research shows that Dole is satisfied and the residents are not, the paper will suggest ways that Dole could do to increase the level of satisfaction of the employed residents
    If the research shows that the residents are satisfied and Dole is not, the paper will suggest ways for the employed residents to give better service.
    Research Problem Statement
    Determine whether or not the residents are satisfied with the benefits given by Dole and are they satisfied with their Job, do they feel that they are fit for the job, and is the salary enough. I would also like to determine if Dole is satisfied with the performance given by the residents they have employed.

    1. Dear Amirah, that’s a good study. Job satisfaction has many dimensions. Just focus on some variables which you can measure in your study and put them in your conceptual framework as your independent variables that influence job satisfaction as dependent variable. You may then use job satisfaction as the independent variable to predict work performance as dependent variable (as Dole rates it). For example, company wage rates –>job satisfaction –> job performance
      I hope that helps.

      1. Hi! I was wondering how to start my conceptual framework. My thesis is about e-learning system. Hope you give me some advice. Thankss

  26. Hello sir will you help me to identify my dependent and independent variable is? My research title is “EMERGENCY FUEL FOR SPARK IGNITION INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES USING HYDROGEN GAS SPLITTED FROM WATER” THANK YOU

    1. Dear Tintin, you are studying alternative fuel for spark ignition internal combustion engines. Thus, your suggested independent variable would be alternative fuels and your dependent variable would be engine performance.

      1. Will you help me to construct my conceptual framework sir? And i been confused about making a conceptual diagram will you give me an idea?

  27. Dear Sir, I am having difficulty writing my theoretical /conceptual framework. I am seeking your help in writing it. The topic is Investigating how the leadership styles of classroom teachers influence students persistence (persistence speaks to self efficacy and encouragement).

    Please reply

  28. is there any significant between the demographic profile of the respondents and communication apprehension
    what would be my dependent and independent variable?
    my topic is about influences of communication apprehension to rad tech students

  29. Dear Sir, I am having difficulty writing my theoretical /conceptual framework. I am seeking your help in writing it. our Topic is about “FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO LOW LEVEL OF COMPREHENSION OF THE STUDENTS”

    Im very much hoping for your favorable response

  30. Dear Sir, Our study is DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
    I am having difficulty writing my theoretical /conceptual framework. I am seeking your help in writing it. our Topic is about “FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO LOW LEVEL OF COMPREHENSION OF THE STUDENTS”

    Im very much hoping for your favorable response

  31. Dear Sir, Our study is DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
    I am having difficulty writing my theoretical /conceptual framework. I am seeking your help in writing it. our Topic is about “FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO LOW LEVEL OF COMPREHENSION OF THE STUDENTS”

    Will you also give me an advice to make my conceptual diagram on what should be or shouldn’t included in the diagram and the accurate flow of the paradigm

      1. I already did sir, but i cant still dont know how to start doing the conceptual framework and diagram

      2. Dear Sir, I am a graduating student of Bs-Marketing and we are to make a Marketing Plan and we have to find a model company or establishment, now we already have found a casual type of resto and it’s not as big as other resto and it’s a sole proprietorship, now my concern sir is that, We’re having a hard time looking for review of its related literature and related studies, and the theoritical framework.

        Pls help us. Thankyou somuch 🙂

  32. Hello sir,
    My topic is Human Resource Information System and Operational Effectiveness.. finding it hard to get the conceptual framework, variables…

  33. Dear Sir, Our study is DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH(quantitive method)
    I am having difficulty writing my theoretical /conceptual framework. I am seeking your help in writing it. our Topic is about
    ‘Market research of technical textile products in Bangladesh’

    1. Dear Nafis, just frame a clear question on what you want to learn about technical textile produces and review literature about it so that you can figure out your concept on how your research should proceed.

  34. Am glad to come across this platform, having issues in writing my conceptual framework on the thesis topic “The analysis of a strategic factors affecting entrepreneur development in my country. What/how could be my conceptual frame looks like? Thanks

  35. have a good day sir! will you give us an advice how to make our conceptual framework, our topic is The role of product development and advertising in promoting sales of fast food chains… thank you!

  36. Hai sir ..I got a problem doing a research hypothesis ..can u help me…my title is about the factors of car park shortage and the ways to solved it.. .it mess my mind plez help me doing my research .tq

    1. Dear Esmarel, modeling can be used to resolve car park shortage. This phenomenon has something to do with supply and demand. You need to a review of literature to find out what factors affect availability of parking areas. From those literature, you should be able to come up with your conceptual framework and research hypothesis.

  37. Hi sir could u help me doing a research hypothesis…it really mess my mind to write title is the factors of car park shortage in my area and the ways to solved it….tq

  38. Dear sir, with thanks from Pakistan.
    my study is about perception and practices of teachers regarding peace education… i am totally failed in developing conceptual frame work… plz give me some hints …

    1. dear sir i need your help please my topic is “efficacy of problem solving strategy on students’ attitude and performance in algebraic processes in junior secondary” i want you to help me construct the conceptual framework

      1. the attitude of students can be positive or negative towards the problem-solving when exposed to

  39. Dear NSin, you should have a clear objective to guide you in your study. I can see two things in your proposed study. You would want to know 1) teachers perception of peace, perhaps their explanations on what it is and its utility, and 2) how teachers demonstrate or practice peace. These two things will serve as your guide in doing the literature review for you to come up with your conceptual framework.
    I hope that helps.

  40. Hello!!
    This is very helpful but still i’ve got some questions and i do hope you can help me. I’m at a point in my undergraduate studies where i’ve been asked to do a conceptual framework. I just need to know whether the literature review forms part of the framework or not?
    Moreover, would you be able to guide me in finding the variables in this problem definition:
    -Challenges of knowledge management in the crew department of the airline industry.
    Research objectives are: key issues concerning KM and knowledge gap between ground staff, crew and clients.

    Thank you.

    1. Dear Ash, the literature review serves as your scaffolding to build your conceptual framework. Without supporting evidence provided by literature, your conceptual framework shall be mainly guesswork.
      Your problem centers on airline employees’ efficient use of information to serve their customers. I hope that helps.

  41. Dear Patrick, my topic thesis is: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF BRAND PEPSI in ASIA. May you help me to construct the conceptual framework?

  42. Dear Shu, if you have read the example, you can easily prepare a conceptual framework for your concern. It’s simply discussing the factors that influence customer’s preference of a softdrink brand, not PEPSI, as that would be leading.

    1. Hi I have a problem on my conceptual frame work I need your help my topic is “to examine the adoption of e_procurement in public sector”.

  43. Dear Patrick, pls assist me with d variables of this topic : Islamic Home Financing through Ijarah wa iqtina (Lease ending with ownership): A case study of Jaiz bank in Nigeria.
    Tnx 4 helping ppl!

    1. As d topic suggest, to find out how house can be acquired conveniently through instalment payment according to d Islamic law ( I.e devoid of interest, uncertainty, gambling, etc).
      Tnx 4 responding!

  44. If it’s a case study, you will just have to describe the system or assess its efficacy by asking how much people are willing to pay as installment and for how long they should do it. The desired amount of payment will vary for individuals and the average will show the majority’s preference.
    I hope that helps.

  45. Dear sir,. I want to conduct an action research. Please help me to construct a conceptual framework. My topic is ” Enhancing pupils’ achievement in mathematics using exemplary Lesson study. Thank you.

  46. hi, my thesis is on impact of physical fitness on training of cadets. kindly assist with a clue on how my conceptual framework will look like. thanks

  47. Dear Ibrahim, specify outcome of training by say, improved heart rate. Your framework appears to be: type of training –> heart rate. Studies show that conditioned men/women tend to have lower heart rates attributable to training.

  48. Dear Patrick,
    Thanks for explaining such a tough topic in a simpler way.And more over you are really great to take time and patients in replying everyone.I also have doubts about my CF,im doing my research on Gambling and its impact on society,and my
    DV : Gambling and its Impact in society+Readiness of healthcare system
    IV:Spending time and money,Reason for playing,Impact on family-abusiveness,violence etc,Impact on workplace-loss of work productivity,Impact on behavior-stress,depression,anger etc
    I just want to know is this is correct or wrong?
    Also can you tell me any specific tool to create Research paradigm.
    Thanks in advance,

  49. hello sir, my study is about Drug use among university and college students. would you please give me an idea of what my framework would be?

    1. Dear Agnneta, you can have the profile (age, gender, course, etc.) of the students as your independent variables and drug use indicator (e.g. drug residuals in blood) as the dependent variable. I hope that helps.

  50. Hello sir, am researching on determinants of human welfare:emphasis on non-income indicators of welfare. How do I construct my conceptual framework? And please clarify the difference between conceptual framework and theoretical framework. Thanks

  51. Dear Austine, your dependent variable is human welfare which is quite broad. Narrow it down into measurable variables such as quality of life indicators like access to services, diet, human development index (HDI), housing, among others. Your independent variable could be something like a government conditional grants to the poorest of the poor. I hope that will help you get started.

  52. Thanks so much sir, i have chosen mortality rate, life expectancy and literacy rate as my dependent variables, while explanatory variables are government pro-poor spending, urbanization growth, foreign aid . I want to regress each of those dependent variables on the explanatory variables. My challenge is finding an appropriate theory and constructing a conceptual framework.

  53. sir i want to knw what will be my conceptual framework my topic is A study of magical realism in lord of the ring

  54. my title is about “Creation and Management of of urban green spaces” Please advise me on my conceptual framework

  55. I am studying the impact of brand communities embedded on social networking sites on brand commitment. I know I have an X variable and a Y variable. I need to come up with a moderator or a mediator to study their impact. ALso, I need to draw a conceptual framework. How do I go about doing that. I have 8 hypothesis for my study. Is it wrong to have too many hypothesis. I am also studying the behavioral consequences of brand commitment. How do I put that across in terms of X and Y variable? Please help!

  56. can u also help me with my thesis? its titled: The Effect of the Difficulties, Hindrances and their Corresponding Coping Strategies in the Implementation of Anti-Illegal Drugs Ordinance. what would be my conceptual framework? please help. thank you.

  57. hi sir can you help me about our conceptual framework. ?
    our title is “Dependency on alcoholic beverages among Hotel and Restaurant Management students in the University of Mindanao” 🙂 hope you could help me 🙂


  59. I am doing a study on the Prevailing factors influencing the professional growth of professional nurses working in a referral public hospital.

    How should I go about developing a conceptual framework?

    What will my dependent and Independent variables be?

    Will appreciate your response soon..


  60. Hi Patrick can you help me on my thesis ? what do you think is the best conceptual framework in the effectiveness of the CCTV in a school ?

  61. Hi Patrick. Thanks for the article. I need a conceptual framework for a research titled: The level of awareness and utilization of ICT for Mathematics instruction.

    1. Dear Adeoye, you need to frame the objective of your study to have a clear picture of your conceptual framework. What do you need to know about the level of awareness and utilization of ICT in Mathematics instruction?

  62. Good day Sir Patrick. My thesis is about the poor performance of the students in Mathematics . I would like to let the students undergo the Enhancement Program which i will prepare so that their performance in mathematics will improve. What will be the best conceptual framework for this? thank you in advance Sir Patrick. God bless!

    1. Dear Edgar, you intend to compare the performance of students in Mathematics before and after the enhancement program that you propose. So your framework should show both performance in Mathematics with your intervention in the middle.

  63. Hi Patrick please help me on my conceptual framework, Our Research title is The Effectiveness of the Readiness to Change Model in Smoking Cessation
    Among Student Smokers

  64. level of mathematics performance (before) level of mathematics performance (after) . would it be like this sir eric? tnx for the reply.

  65. Level of Mathematics Performance (before) <> Level of Mathematics Performance (after) . The Enhancement Program in the lower middle pointing upward to the double arrow. Would it be like this Sir Eric? Tnx for the reply.

  66. Hi sir can you please help me about my research paper my title is PROVING THE VALUE OF ZERO RAISED TO ZERO IS ONE.
    what will be the conceptual framework and theoretical …
    Thank you

  67. sir,
    my research is “auditors’ behavior on meeting anger, conflicts and interpersonal relationship”
    would u please suggest to me better ways of formulating problem statement (not the typical level of contribution, degree of seriousness). i want to compare behavior of auditors from public and that of private.

  68. Good day Sir. Can you help me with my thesis about comparative study on catering service and facility rental between Notre Dame University and restaurants in Cotabato City

  69. What will be my conceptual and theoretical framework if my thesis is lifestyles as risk of breast cancer with the variables being alcohol, tobacco smoking, excess weight , non physical activity

  70. Hi, can you highlight what is the conceptual framework for the following question.
    The Jordanian Public Schol curriculum analysis of the English as a foreign language: The case of secondary 12 curriculum

  71. Hi, can you please highlight what is the conceptual framework for the following question.
    The Jordanian Public Schol curriculum analysis of the English as a foreign language: The case of secondary 12 curriculum
    Thank you

  72. Dear Mr. Patrick, I am very grateful by your level of selfless commitment in assisting people get a well defined and strategic approach to framework development. It is a great lesson indeed. Thank you.

    Sir, I have a little challenge which I need your assistance ASAP. I have a basic education issue in my state which has affected learning outcome (student performance) but literary and numerically. This is so disheartening and thus shows a high decline in quality of basic education in my state. I now decide to develop an intervention framework to help address the issue and improve the quality of basic education in my state.

    The challenge is:
    1. What type of framework is that?
    2. How do I go about it?

    N/B: There is a report on the decline in literacy and numeracy in my state which shows the decline in quality in basic education, and I’m developing this framework based on that report.

    Thank you.

  73. hi there..i hope you will help me to my thesis work..i need my conceptual framework,my thesis is all about the investigation on growth of shared services and its impact to other companies…thank you..i need help so badly..

  74. Dear Mr. Regoniel

    Thanks for your article. It is very helpful.

    I would like you to kindly assist me with coming up with a conceptual framework for my research paper on “Challenges faced by disabled pregnant women in accessing maternal and child health services”.

    Thank you.


  75. ahm Hi. This is my first time to do a research and I don’t actually know how to write a conceptual framework. Please help me. My reserach is about “Perceptions of Community Members on Traffic Ordinance” in our place.

  76. hello
    I have been trying to frame a conceptual framework on my research un fortunately it doesnt sound nice my reseach is about CONTRIBUTION OF FISHING TO THE HOUSEHOLD INCOME.

  77. Good day, I read your article with keen interest and is of help to me. Please sir I need your assistant. My research topic is “Analysis and the impact of foreign made goods on Nigeria market”. Please what will be my “Conceptua Issues”. Expecting to hear from you. Thanks.

  78. With much greetings and respect. I am glad to read your article. This is the first time that I came across with the well elucidated article about conceptual framework. May God bless you and increase you more wisdom and courage. I am deeply and profoundly grateful to you. Although, I will like you to help me to illustrate the conceptual framework of my research topic. Actually, I am writing on Ibn Khaldun’s Concept of Umran. So please how I suppose to write my conceptual framework base on the concept. Thank you very much. I will be so happy if I quickly hear from you.

  79. what would be the conceptual framework if the topic is ‘perception of college instructors toward faculty evaluation as basis for performance appraisal’? please help me, thanks!

  80. Dear Everyone, I have illustrated to you the step-by-step guide. Which portion would you like me to explain more? I plan to write a more extensive one detailing it further if you can guide me which portion you find difficult. I thought that you should be able to write your conceptual framework after reading this article.

    The rule is: if you are not quite familiar with your research topic, read more about the topic and discern your unit of analysis. Explore the voluminous literature available in free scientific databases like Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, among others.

    I hope that helps.

  81. Good day Sir Patrick. Perhaps you can explain more on what are the things or variables should be considered in the conceptual framework or do we need to include all variables found in the research title and specific questions? and how to arrange them or the sequence. Thanks for the help to all of us.

  82. Dear Edgar, it’s you as a researcher who should define that based on your literature review. You just have to look at your objectives. What do you intend to do and what variables are important that would help you understand the phenomenon at hand? If your study is about students’ performance in Mathematics, then by all means, use Mathematics as your dependent variable. And Mathematics performance is determined by say: sex, genes, interest in the subject, among others. These are your independent variables.

  83. Can you help me sir to make my conceptual framework? The topic is Areas of Difficulties in Statistics in Math 7.

    1. Jessy, have you read the article where you made your comment? It should guide you on how to make your conceptual framework. If it did not, please tell me which part so I can improve on the article.

  84. Hi! I can’t think of a good conceptual and theoretical framework, can you help me out? My research topic is about high school students’ perception and acceptance of e-learning. I already have a research model to follow, is that the one I will discuss in the theoretical framework? Thank you!!

  85. Dear Patrick,
    I intend to develop a grounded theory on the mindsets of leaders using patterns on how they make decisions in the program arrangements of their respective institutions. How would this appear as a paradigm? Please assist me.



  86. Hi sir.? Can you help me , my research study is all about electronic patient record, what should be my conceptual ftamework? Thanks!

    1. Hi sir.? Can you help me , my research study is all about electronic patient record, what should be my conceptual framework? Thanks!

  87. I am also in dilemma on how to work my conceptual framework of my research in titled The principal’s decision making in the performance of K t0 12 scenario.

  88. Dear Babes, it seems to me that you are not yet clear on your topic. Did you already review the literature on your topic of interest? What is it that you want to know about K to 12? Why are you interested on the principal’s decision? What is this decision all about?

  89. Dear Sir
    Thanks for this topic. I too am trying to develop a conceptual framework for my Masters’ class dissertation literature review.
    My topic is on export expansion grant. we have had a stakeholder workshop to discuss issues around this topic. they proposed several policy recommendations. how do i proceed in developing the framework?
    (Would love to use diagrams)


    1. Sorry, to clarify more.

      My research aims at testing if implementing these policy recommendations will be enough to catalyse non-oil exports in my country.

      hope it helps.


  90. Sir Patrick, the title of my study is, “Prevalence of Obesity Among Filipino Seamen.” What is my conceptual framework? Thank you.

  91. Hello, i just want to ask you Sir Patrick. what can i put in my Independent variable and dependent variable in my topic “Perception of Calapenos towards Padrino System: Prevalence in Efficiency in Rendering Services.?

  92. can you help me build may conceptual framework? the title is “academic motivation of student athletes compared to regular students

  93. Hello sir
    Please I really need you make a conceptual framework for my topic: A Critical Review of the Impact of Consolidation in Insurance Industry. I’ve been stuck on this for a while now. Thanks

  94. Good Evening Sir Patrick . Sir can you help me or give some advice to make my conceptual framework about bike rider ? Thank you 😀

  95. Hi, Your article helped but i still need help on my conceptual framework, my dissertation is women in management: barriers to career progression in Multinational corporation in the UK. what could my conceptual framework be?… really need your help :s

    1. Dear Lilly, your title implies a simple study of the barriers to career progression. I believe you should dig deeper. So what if there are barriers to career progression? What is/are your objectives in the study?

  96. Good day sir, I would just like to ask for help in our thesis, we found it difficult for us to construct a conceptual frame work for this title:” The Effects of School and Family Community Partnership Program for Students Who Are At Risk at Good Shepherd Christian Academy”
    our adviser approved already our independent variable, therefore what we need to look for now is our dependent variable can you please help us? it would really be much appreciated.
    Thank you sir.

  97. Hi sir,
    can you help me formulate my conceptual framework? the title is “academic motivation of student athletes compared to regular students” i’ve been stuck for a while now. please thanks.

  98. My research title is Enhancing Vocabulary Knowledge Using Songs Among the Primary School Students : Its effectiveness and Students’ Preferences………what will be my conceptual framework?

  99. Hello sir i need your help. Im looking fir a conceptual framework of my topic which is difficulties you encounter in general math.can you help me with this?

  100. Hi sir. I really need you help. My research topic is about A Study About Factors Affecting The Readiness Of Teachers in their Personal Finance Management. How may i conduct conceptual frame work? I

  101. Dear Sir.
    what can be my variables if my research title is “Comprehension and Retention Skills: An Analysis of the Determinants of the Students Scholastic Perfomance” and my conceptual framework.
    thanks in advance

    1. can be my independent variable can be my input and the dependent variable can be my output in my conceptual framework that follows input-process-output?

    2. Dear Aira,
      Two days before your post i requested the same type of question i think difference is just a title and i get response from Mr. Regoniel. he responded just as below i think if your read the notes about variables (Independent, Intervening and Dependent variables) under that link, i think may help you a little bit but try to read more literature especially and try to see how do they figured out thier conceptual framework based on their tittle.
      “I have posted an earlier article describing the independent and independent variables. You may refer to it here:

  102. Dear sir,
    please help me identify the variables and the conceptual framework on the topic
    “Basic School Teachers Experience and Perception about In -service Training Programmes”.

  103. Hello. May i seek your help? Our topic is 4P’s in Dasmarinas City: Demographics and Perceived Benefits of the recipients in Barangay San Jose. How could i make a conceptual framework out of it?

  104. Hi there,
    I am studying teacher attitudes about implementing practical work in sciece education. I am using Social constructivism as my theoretical framework, but as yet am unsure of the conceptual framework. Any help you could give me would be great. Thank you

    1. Dear Jacqui, your unit of analysis are teachers. So your focus shall be on their attitudes and science education implementation. So how do you propose to measure these factors? That should shed light on your conceptual framework.

  105. Hi Sir
    My topic is: The role of radio in changing parental attitudes towards education: The case study of X-K FM in Platfontein. What is my conceptual framework, dependent and independent variables? Thanks.

    1. Dear Dumezweni, which factor affects another factor? Of course we know that information can change people’s attitudes, and radio can do so. Do you think you need to do research on that? What matters here is how parents regard the information that they have received through the radio.

  106. Good day, sir. The topic of our research is The Effects of Internet Usage to thr Academic Performance of the grade 11 students. The independent variable is effects of internet usage, the dependent variable is academic performance and the moderator is gender. Please help me how to explain this, sir. Can you explain how the effects of internet usage became the independent variable and how the academic performance became the dependent variable? I hope you can help me sir, thank you in advance.

  107. Good day Sir. In constructing my conceptual framework, do I need to use the whole model of the theoretical framework or can I leave behind some parts of the theoretical framework? Thank you. More power.

  108. Hello, I so much love this explanation about conceptual framework..Thanks for sharing. Alright here is my question. I’m writing on Effect Of External Debt on Economic Growth in my Country. Having gone through some journal I discovered that variables used in measuring External Debt are: inflation, external debt, Exchange rate and many more while variable used in measuring Economic growth is GDP. Can we then say my dependent variable is GDP or Economic growth and independent variable(s) is inflation, exchange rate or EXTERNAL DEBT itself? Pls what’s my conceptual framework? Thanks for your reply in advance.

  109. Great piece of info.i am looking into the health related quality of life of patients living with ostomy.there is already a model on quality of fits so well with my topic.can I just take it n explain it as my conceptual framework?is my dependent variable quality of life?n independent patients wish ostomy?thanks in advance

  110. Good day sir! having difficulty searching theoretical framework on ICT Integration of Teachers, i already have one but my adviser told me to look for others since the theory is commonly used. Thought of making own conceptual framework, is it possible? how should i do it? dont know where to start, what to include, it would be a great help if you each me how. thank you very much!

  111. Thanks for the article. Helps me alot. Can u help me with my conceptual framework too? My topic is all about the Presence of supermarkets: its effect to fruit and vegetable vendors. Pls thanks in advance 😀

  112. Hi. Badly need your advise. My research is about “Understanding the Phenomenon of Networking Businesses (Pyramiding)” I will be studying the behaviors of people engaged to it and the ones that are not engaged. What are the variables in my study? I will be using Descriptive Research for this study. Looking forward for your advice in improving my study. Thank you.

  113. I was Quite informed with regards the article on conceptual framework. I do however wonder what variables I will conceptualize in my below stated topic:

    “Institutional and compliance framework for environmental awareness and management in Lagos state, Nigeria”

    Thank You

  114. Hi sir, im doing my researche on the following topic “what is the relevancy and effect of discipline in state schools among learners of the senior primary phase, grades 4 through 7”, is the topic correctly formulated?

  115. Hi. Am doing a research on Expectations and Experiences of childbirth and after going through the literature i have identified the expectations that pregnant women have and the factors that influence those expectations. Please help me understand which are the independed variables. Is it’ the expectations’ or is it ‘the factors that influence the expectations’? I have taken ‘positive childbirth experirnces’ to be the depended variable. Please help.

    1. Hello, am doing a research on Globalisation and the collapse of Mummar Gaddfi’s regime Implication for African Security. How do i structure this please

  116. hi ! i wanted to ask for your help, please? my topic is gender and leadership styles: a phenomenological study of community leaders. then what’s my conceptual framework?

  117. Dear all,
    Can some body help me to identify the conceptual framework for my study topic which states: Remuneration and and Job Satisfaction of staff in the Milk processing industry.

  118. Hi I also need help finding appropriate conceptual frame work for my Topic : civilians contribution towards the liberation struggle.

  119. hi sircan you help me with my thesis?its all about the impact of technology in character development of Grade III pupils what will be my conceptual framework for that? thanks in advance.


    1. Dear Myllbeth, you have to be specific on what kind of technology you mean here. Also, what character are you referring to? Narrowing your topic down into variables that can be measured can help you come up with your workable conceptual framework.

  120. Hi sir jonathan… My Topic is about a effectiveness of the Value-meal product and Services of McDonald’s Corporation to the all customers. What would be the conceptual framework? thankyou so much sir!^_^

  121. Hello, my research topic is impact of information technology on supply chain management? Need help for conceptual frame work

  122. Hello, I cannot discern my independent variable and dependent variable in my thesis. The title of my thesis is Counseling Services and Etiology of Learning Disabilities. Can you help me?

  123. Hello,I’m finding it difficult to design a conceptual framework for my thesis.My topic is ” The effect of grade retention on students’academic achievement”.Please help.

  124. Dear Philip, what do you mean by grade retention? Is it measurable? If that’s measurable then that should be your independent variable and for academic achievement as your dependent variable, find a specific measure such as grade in English, or Math, or GPA, that you can measure.

  125. Thanks a lot Patrick, grade retention in this context means holding a child in the same class for a longer time as their classmates are promoted to the next class as an academic intervention strategy.

  126. how my conceptual framework would look like.if my topic is the effect of Mobile Money transfer on Telecommunication companies.

  127. Dear Said, maybe you’d consider rephrasing your topic. I’ll ask you the question: Who are you interested in? Is it the telecommunications companies or is it the people who benefit from the services that the telecommunication companies offer such as money transfer? That will somehow guide you in your study.

  128. hi sir. Thanks a lot for a very good article.
    I need a help though. Our research study is titled “Factors affecting the budget of student.”. Regarding to that, what would be the most appropriate and intelligent conceptual framework for that.

  129. Dear Doom, maybe what you mean by budget is the allowance of students? What is the objective of your study? What gap in knowledge do you want to address? Is it really that important that you study the budget of students? I could not see the significance of your study.

  130. Hello sir. My research topic is “An analysis of some manuscripts of contemporary scholars of Maiduguri, Nigeria”. How would i go about the coceptual framework of the research. Thank you

  131. Wow this article on conceptual frame has become an eye opener into my conceptual frame which I was looking for,…thank you ,now I can proceed

  132. Hi sir. Can you please help me for making conceptual framework, research paradigm and even research hypothesis? My topic is all about internet cafe. Thanks in advance. 🙂

  133. Hello Mr. Regional,
    I would like to request your assistance… Does your book speak of SEM, to formally link variables when developing the framework? Is there a way to contact you?

    1. Dear Genevieve, my surname is not Regional, but Regoniel. A good researcher must be keen. As for your question, I don’t know what you mean by SEM. My book on conceptual framework discusses how variables are interconnected. Five concrete examples are given. It’s in the description. You can always contact me using the contact form.

  134. Hi sir, am doing a research on the following topic: An Analysis of the impact of ICTs on operational efficiency of the road freight transportation. What could be my conceptual framework?

  135. yes sir, we already realized that our study is somehow absurd. Our adviser corrected it and come up with a similar and sensible study. “Factors affecting the consumption of monthly allowance of students.” We need now your help to make our conceptual framework. Thank you sir.

    1. Dear Doom, your task now will be easy. Just find out the factors affecting the consumption of monthly allowance of students. But I think you should have a better objective, such as, finding out how students spend their allowance to understand students’ preferences or interests. The end in mind is to manage their spending patterns.

  136. Great job.
    Please I design the research paradigm using my own understanding of the research.
    How do I reference it because my supervisor is asking me for the source? The design is out of my own initiative.
    Thank you.

  137. Thanks Regoniel I pass through different explanations and I kindly give you a big thanks for the work that you are doing to help people. I am a masters students and my research title is ASSESSMENT ON THE INFLUENCE OF TIME MANAGEMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS. I request you to help me various recent articles from 2010 to 2016 that talking about time management and academic performance. Also, I request you t o help me on how to explain the conceptual framework like this Time-Learning-Time management-High/poor academic performance.

    1. Dear David, you’re on the right track but you just need to make time management measurable. How do you intend to measure it?
      As for your request, that’s part of the site’s services (see . That’s for a fee because search for literature takes considerable time to prepare; the same goes for conceptual framework preparation based on the literature review on your given topic.

  138. Hi sir, am doing a research on the following topic: observational study to assess the knowledge regarding airway suctioning among CCU nurses. What could be my conceptual framework?

    1. Dear Chumba, why do you want to study the airway suctioning anyway? My point is, what are you looking trying to study? Does it have something to do with training effectiveness in medical schools? What is your intention in doing the study? Airway suctioning is just one of the procedures to relieve patients of whatever obstruction there is along the respiratory system. Answers to these questions will help you build your conceptual framework.
      And what do you mean by CCU? Is it Colorado Christian University?

  139. Good Morning
    I have just started working on my Master’s Thesis, title: ‘Can universal human rights exist in a multi-cultural world? A case study of female genital surgery’. 
    My supervisor has just recommended that I use a conceptual framework. This is my first research and I am not familiar with structural frameworks, hence my looking at your very informative site.
    To make sure that I do not start off incorrectly please would you kindly advise me on how I would structure this dissertaion, for example which is the independent and which the dependent variable? I am not yet sure I have a full understanding. My kind regards

  140. Good morning Sir Patric…can you help me for my conceptual framework?

  141. Hi Patrick, kindly help me with my conceptual framework. My topic is “The Impact on Revenue Generation on Governmental Developmental efforts.”
    Thanks a lot

  142. Dear Ayo, how do you propose to measure impact? Did you make a baseline study before? And what developmental efforts do you refer to? That’s too broad. Just select a particular developmental effort. You can see detailed examples in my eBook on how to develop a Conceptual Framework.

  143. Hi
    I am also busy with my research and my topic is: the role of a freight forwarder in international trade and logistics in Namibia.
    What would be my conceptual framework please?

  144. at first i didn’t know how i will make a conceptual framework for our thesis, but because of your help I only have one step to finish our thesis….. 🙂

  145. Dear Patrick,

    I hope this inquiry fins you in good health.

    May you please assist me with a crafting a problem statement and a conceptual framework for my dissertation. My topic is “Critical analysis on the influence of psychological contract to organisational commitment and employee retention – A case study of a plastic manufacturing company in Zimbabwe.

  146. I had read your step by step guides on how to make my conceptual framework but still i donIdit know how to make my own conceptual because its my first time to venture research research title is: Indigenous student Reading Abilities:Bases for Development Reading Program.pleasehelp me identify my variables. I dont know how to start making mg conceptual framework..

  147. May you please help explaining to me what is the role/position of demographic variables in the research model/framework? And also its relationship to independent and dependent variables? I am new in social related research. I usually worked on engineering based experiment. I almost never used those definitions in my proposal. One of my hypotheses is “Safety and security of all-inclusive travel is better than of independent travel.”
    In my framework:
    Indepedent variable –> dependent variable
    Safety and security –> type of travel
    So where should I put demographic variables?

    1. Dear Anita, your dependent variable is safety and security, it’s the other way around. Demographic variables appear to be inappropriate in your framework because your unit of analysis is not the individual but the travel agency? A backgrounder on your study would help clarify the issue.

  148. Hello Patrick, I’d like to appreciate you for your effort and time in helping to tackle research challenges around the world. I’m an academic, Language Educationist. I have no challenge at the most. This is only to acknowledge your efforts. Well done!

  149. Dear TtCole,
    Thank you for taking time to express your encouragement. I write these articles to clarify my thoughts and queries about research concepts. While doing so, I share my understanding with others through this website. I’m glad my reflections have been of help to those who faced the same challenges.

  150. Hi sir/ mam. Can you please help me on how to make a conceptual framework in Title Admission and retension policies for beed students and requirements for graduation. Thank you in advance.

  151. Good morning Mr. Patrick can you please help me doing conceptual framework. My topic is “RFID based electricity control system for classroom utilization”. Thank youin advance.

  152. Very inspiring. My topic is Exploring strategies for Sustainable public procurement processes in the Ghanaian construction industry. How should I go about with my conceptual framework.

  153. Hello Mr. Patrick. I need massive help in writing a conceptual framework for the topic, The Role of Instructional Technology in Higher Educational Institutions in Ghana. Can you please help me? Thank you in advance.

  154. Kindly help me identify IV and DV of my topic DISCONNECT BETWEEN THE JOB MARKET AND BUSINESS SCHOOL GRADUATES: a case of KYU University.
    I am also having trouble formulating the conceptual framework.


      1. Dear Lydia, bring down your job market and business graduates into measurable variables if you want to make a quantitative study. Have you followed the advice in the article? What portion do you find difficult?

  155. hi! im just a student, and one of my pfoject is a thesis. im done writing my conceptual framework, I consult other teachers to know their opinion and ideas about my topic (Relationship between 4ps program and the academic performance of 4ps grantees in Essu Salcedo Campus) they say that my conceptual framework is ok, but my adviser told me that it’s not. he says that i should add more ideas, that it should be meaty, IM JUST A STUDENT and this is my first time making a thesis… Please i need an advice how can i overcome this one.

    thank you.

    1. Dear Salvacion, perhaps your adviser would like you to have a good review of literature to clarify the relationship between 4Ps program and academic performance. What are measures or indicators of the 4Ps program that you want to correlate with academic performance? Are there features in the program that impact on academic performance? Also, you might want to compare academic performance before the 4Ps and after the 4Ps to see the impact of the program.

  156. Hi sir! can you help me? my topic is about career decision making in k to 12 and i need help in making conceptual framework. please help me!

  157. Sir,
    I am a post graduate student in Nigeria,I want to have your e-mail so that I will be communicating my intricacies in conducting research. Thank you for your usual help.

  158. Hi. Thanks for this- it’s enlightening and explained in an easy-to-grasp manner :-). I just paid for the eBook for further reading. Thanks!

  159. Can you help me? I wanted to know my conceptual framework entitled ” Grade-11 Student’s Experiences on ICT-based Learning”. ASAP, please. I need a reply because of the deadline.

  160. hello sir,

    my FYP title is ” Opportunistic Maintenance in Lean Manufacturing Culture” so what should i do sir ? what is the variable ? im a bit lost here

  161. Dear Mr. Patrick, I almost forgot about this but thank you for reply on December 21st. It was simply my mistake to put demographic attributes (age, gender, etc.) in my table of variables so my coach confused why they are not in the framework. I was just freaking out right away cause it’s just so basic.
    If you don’t mind, can you help me again with my conceptual framework.
    My research is to evaluate travel style A by comparing it to travel style B through the same attributes of both styles. So I want to prove style A attributes are better/have higher ratings than of style B. Some of the attributes are relaxation, social interaction, convenience.
    My recent framework is:
    relaxation style preference:
    social interaction —> style A
    convenience style B
    What should I do to correct this?
    Anyway, thank you again for your previous reply 🙂

  162. I am sorry I missed your response for my concept earlier.
    So the conceptual framework should be:
    style preference (A vs. B) –> relaxation
    style preference (A vs. B) –> social interaction
    style preference (A vs. B) –> convenience
    Is this correct?
    So both are dependent variables and measure items are independent ones?

    1. Dear Iqra, just read the article and contemplate how it can be applied to your study. This article was written to help you build your conceptual framework. If it cannot help, just tell me which portion is difficult for you.

  163. I really need help. I didn’t quite understand how to make a conceptual framework. and I’m currently making a thesis about the effectiveness of integrating music in math/science subjects in the academic performance of high school students. I’m stuck on this conceptual framework part 🙁

  164. Good day, I really need your help about doing my conceptual framework about “factors affecting parasitic worm in 3-8 years old children”. I’m stuck doing this part

  165. Dear Precy, thank you for visiting You mentioned the variables in your statement. You just need to read literature or note down in your observations (if you are a health worker) those factors (as independent variables) that may influence the incidence of parasitic worm in 3-8 children (dependent variable). You could still narrow down the parasitic worms into a specific species (e.g. Ascaris lumbricoides).

  166. Hi,need your email,to be part you. Please differentiate between conceptual framework and empirical framework and theoretical framework. Thank you.

  167. Hi! can you help me with my research? our topic is about Vape or Electronic Cigarrete, can you help me? give me the conceptual framework of this topic, please

  168. Good day, i really need your help sir for my research, title factors affecting academic performance of BS ACCOUNTANCY students in thier accounting subject. Can you help me sir for my conceptual framework?

    1. Dear Grace, you can identify the factors that affect academic performance in accounting by reviewing the literature as mentioned in this article. If you need a much more detailed description of the steps, the ebook shown in this website provides examples you can refer to.

  169. Sir,Your article is a big help,I’m just confused of what will be my conceptual framework with this study”Difficulties encountered by the teen-agers engaged in an early relationships”

  170. the title of the research of my daughter is performance level on proper sanitation and hygiene of grade 10 students of cantilan national high school… dependent variable will be performance level and proper sanitation and hygiene… independendent variable… kindly help me sir to correct

    1. Dear Miraflor, you need to have a measure of performance level in sanitation and hygiene. And also, please be clear why you need such information. Is it only a descriptive one? Or would you relate performance level in sanitation and hygiene with their absence/tardiness or their getting sick?

  171. Great article I actually understood this more than my supervisor explained. I was wondering in regards to a qualitative thesis on how the decision of brexit could affect inward fdi into the uk from EU. what would be my conceptual framework…somewhat stuck on this. Thank you.

    1. Dear Nikki, you are looking into the difference between what has been the situation before and after Brexit’s decision. Thus, you need to see the difference between FDI before and after that decision. But of course, there may be other reasons for the change in FDI.

  172. Hi good day.. i just wanna ask your help how to make conceptual framework and what specific design shouldni use.. My thesis topic is about exploring the perceptions of middle admin on the alignment of personal values to the organizational values.. its a qualitative research

  173. Hi,

    My topic is on Children and climate change. I construct my thesis statement as; “Exposure to climate change impacts increases chances of contracting diseases thus reduces the social activity and school engagement among children 8 to 10 years old”.

    I am not sure if this is okay? Appreciate your feedback
    Thank you.

  174. Hello, after reading your article I am still a bit confused on developing a conceptual framework. My research study is about the lack of risk management in project management. My thesis is performing effective project risk management contributes significantly to overall project success. I am thinking my dependent variable is the number of failed projects and my independent variable would be the number of projects that performed deliberate risk management as part of the creation of the project plan. Am I anywhere close here to a conceptual framework? Thanks in advance for your help.

  175. Dear Don, your dependent variable is project performance (success or failure) while your dependent variable is adoption or non-adoption of risk management. But of course, you have to operationally define what is success or failure. Are you using indicators of success or failure?

    1. Patrick…thanks for the reply. I think the the indicators would be over/under budget, behind/on/ahead of schedule, and to define failure…I would assume a project canceled prior to completion due to cost or schedule overruns. over/under budget and behind/on/ahead of schedule could be determined by using earned value management.

  176. Hi I’m Irish i would like to ask something what is my conceptual framework about this topic Carabao manure as a replacement for cement.

  177. good day sir I have gone through all the comments and replies and they are good but please a need you to clear me .please what will be the variable in the topic Attitude and practice of menstrual hygiene on adolescent

  178. Sir please what will be dependent and independent variable on the topic Attitude and practice of menstrual hygiene on adolescent

  179. Sir,
    Your Guideline is very helpful Please help me to make Conceptual Framework Topic is Brand Image and Brand Loyalty…. what is My Dependent Variable and Independent variable.
    Also guide me setps of Conceptual Framework…

    1. Dear Adnan, if you found the guide helpful then you should be able to identify your dependent and independent variables. But it seems to be that you are unsure yet about what you want to study. You need to read more literature on your chosen topic.

  180. Hello. my report title is :Factors that influence knowledge transfer effectiveness. A case study of Bank of Baroda.

    Research question 1 : Investigate the barriers and enablers of knowledge sharing at Bank of Baroda?
    Question 2: Study that knowledge transfer effectiveness has impact on performance on Bank of Baroda

  181. please tell me how to develop an implementation framework,
    as the topic of my dissertation is developing a framework for implementation of csr in smes ?
    also tell me what is a framework ?? is it necessary it to be a diagram or how to pen it down ??

  182. Hello sir, my research is about “Poverty & Deprivation of basic needs in
    Upper Egypt” and the research question is how does the unstable economic conditions nowadays affect the poor in this region. can you please help me and tell me how i identify the variables and what should the conceptual framework include in this case.

    1. Dear A H Kady. I suggest you find a measure of economic condition to analyze your problem. Your title suggests a description of the situation in upper Egypt and I believe there is no need to come up with a conceptual framework where you will have independent and dependent variables. Perhaps your conceptual framework will just be a mind map of the situation in Upper Egypt.

  183. Good day sir. Your article is quite enlightening. Please how do i catogorise the variables of my thesis topic: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants extracts and assessment of their antitrypanosomal potential

  184. hi sir. need help with our conceptual framework. our title is ” Education Students perception toward teaching effectiveness of Part time instructors”

  185. I am having a problem with my research study regarding on the impact analysis of Singapore Math Model in Teaching Mathematics in Grade V. What should be the conceptual framework of this study?

  186. plz help me on the conceptual, empirical, analytical, and theoritical frame work of the comparative analysis on local and foreign rice demand

  187. Dear Sir,

    I am having a difficult time trying to make my conceptual framework. It’s correlating sleepiness and sleep hygiene among drivers of a certain area. How do I make this?

  188. Hello Dr. Patrick,
    I bought the e-Book on Conceptual Framework Development.
    (You sent a payment of $5.99 USD to
    (, but i could not open the doc.

  189. Dr. Patrick,
    It is an awesome article, however, I am somehow confused. What I know that we identify variables if we are doing a quantitative method. my question is do we have to identify variables even if our research study is qualitative?
    Thank you

  190. Dear Mr. Ali,
    You’re right. Variables are units of the phenomenon that you would want to understand that needs to be measurable in the quantitative research approach. It defines your unit of analysis, that is, that which you are studying whether that is the individual, a group, a social organization, among others. In qualitative research, you dig down deeper than just numbers. For example, you study how a person thinks: his/her opinions, reasons, or motivations which need not be quantified. Qualitative studies can be used as basis for developing ideas or hypothesis that will be tested in quantitative research.
    I hope that clarifies your concern. Thank you for visiting

  191. I enjoyed reading your article. my problem is how to link the conceptual framework ” an exploration on the inhibitors of inclusive education. which one is the independent and the dependent variables?

  192. Dear sir, pls help me , my topic is neglected tropical diseases , what will be my conceptual framework and what are the independent and dependent variables/

  193. Dear sir, I like your article and thank you for sharing this informative knowledge. I can now think about my research more clearly. I am working on Assessment of Library Automation System Adoption in some university libraries. Please what will be my conceptual review and dependent and independent variables?

    1. Dear Adejumo, you seem to be trying to find out the factors that lead to the adoption of Library Automation System. Make a literature review on what determines the decision to adopt new technologies.

  194. Hi can you help me? I wanted to know what is the dependent & independent variable in my study. Here’s the topic ‘The effectiveness of school policy on absences and cutting classes’. Hoping you’ll response immediately.thanks

  195. Will be glad to more insight to writting a conceptual framework.
    This will help me in my thesis leading to the award of an Mphil


  197. Please i need help, my project topic is ”Time management and corporate survival of oil exploratory firms in rivers state” please help me to construct the conceptual framework for this project topic.

  198. Hello, can anyone help me? my topic is disaster awareness and preparedness: basis for disaster management program? can anyone recommend on my conceptual framework. Because I’m just a grade 12 student and our research is like advance to us.

  199. Hello Sir,

    Kindly Assist Insight To What Conceptual Framework Would Be For Topic: Assessment Of Spatial Distribution Of Telecoms Mast & ATM On Socio-Economic Growth

  200. Hi Patrick
    Its amazing how you take out time responding to everyone. Good job man. For my master’s program, my research topic is: “perception and practice of post-rape care among nurses….”

    Independent variable here is: Perception, while
    Dependent variable is Practice.

    I assume that; what people do (practice) is a function of how they feel (perception).

    Please, is this Ok? I’m i right?

  201. Hi Patrick,

    can you help me find the independent variables and dependent variable on this topic i choose? Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing. Thank you.

  202. Hi Patrick,

    Erroneous my topic is corporate social responsibility used as a marketing tool. what would be the dependent variable and independent variable?
    thank you patrick in advance.

    1. Heya Sir! Can you help me with my theoretical and conceptual framework?

      My topic is all about ” The role of Human Resource Management in business growth”

      thank you so much!

  203. Thank you for the guide, from a topic on financing option for PNFP hospitals . How would the conceptual framework look like ? and what the independent and dependent variables?

  204. hi, I am beginner.
    my research is about “family values.” but I don’t know how to explain it to conceptual framework. I read the article but it seems I have no idea to do it. can you help me?

  205. Dear Desserie, when you do research, you always have to be clear on what you want to resolve or what to do. Family values is too broad a topic to research on. Just identify one issue related to family values. In other words, you have to be specific by stating what you want to find out through research. For example, people throw garbage into the open cargo area of my pickup truck. I am curious what family values were inculcated in that person that made him or her throw trash into other people’s vehicle. There is a need to define family values and relate it to the act of throwing garbage. For a start, you may read this article:

  206. hello. sir plz help me in writing theoretical and conceptual framework , My Topic is :- IMPACT OF ALCOHOLISM . I don’t know exactly how do i start . thank you

  207. Hi sir good evening can you please help me to do easy way on how to make conceptual framework ? Anyways, is conceptual framework is the same with literature review? My title is EFFECTS OF 4Ps program to the beneficiaries.

  208. this is good advise, i was thinking how my conceptual framework looks like i am working on my masters degree at public health and and my topic is” knowledge, attitude and practices on life style modification among hypertensive patients and associated factors”
    thank you and looking forward for your response.

  209. Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a few unrelated data, nonetheless truly really worth taking a search, whoa did one particular learn about Mid East has got additional problerms at the same time.

  210. Dear Sir,

    I’m doing a research right now about the effects of personal space to anxiety. I’m finding it hard to do my conceptual framework… as to what would be my IV and DV?

    hope you can help me.


  211. good afternoon po..
    I have read some of your responses to the comments above, and I was impressed by such responses.
    can I also ask for your help regarding conceptual framework of my study untitled “EFFECTIVENESS OF SCHOOL RULES AND POLICIES AMOMG SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF ALAMADA HIGH SCHOOL”
    please po..
    your word is really appreciated, thank po in advance..

    1. Dear Argie, just draw two boxes, inside the left one write the specific school rule you would want to write about. Draw another box at the right side and write the behavior of students you would want to monitor. Connect the two boxes with an arrow.

  212. Good evening sir can I ask for a help regarding conceptual framework to my quantitative research entitled “The number of parents who choose to leave their child to go work abroad and how it affects on academic performance” what would be the dependent and independent variables on my topic ?

  213. hi sir please help me with our conceptual framework. our topic is about ”Mitigating the Stress of College Students through Effective Classroom Management”

  214. Hello please help me also .I am stuck at the moment with my conceptual framework. I plan to do master thesis on “urban development regulations and their compliance to make good urban form”

  215. adding on the above thesis is on the ” a study on the urban development regulations and their compliance in case of Kathmandu VAlley “please help me.What will be my dependent variable and independent variables.

  216. hi, I appreciate your write up on how to go about this, but I still need more help however,my research topic is perception of caesarean section by pregnant women

  217. Hi,my topic is the influence of teachers’ integration of ICT in teaching and learning .I am in need of a compressive conceptual framework with variables,process and indicators.

  218. Hi, I hope this text finds you well.
    Please advise on how I can write a plausible conceptual framework for a study titled: Incidence of haematological and hepatic adverse effects of anti-tuberculous drugs and its associated risk factors among patients in the intensive phase of therapy.


    1. Hello there. I hope you can help me. My thesis title is, “The Use of Community of Practice in Developing Professional Teachers”. What is the independent and the dependent variables?

  220. dear sir, my research topic is ‘The role of micro small and medium enterprise in economic recovery’ Please it is difficult for me to get the theoretical/conceptual framework. Help me out please!

  221. I am so confused about what conceptual frame work has to do with writing of designing a standard fire service station. How do I know if it is independent or dependent variable

  222. hi, can you help me with my thesis ? it’s A study of challenges and issues agritourism farmers in sri lanka . what will be my conceptual framework for that? my problems • What are the issues and challenges related agritourism farmers in Sri Lanka?
    • What is the general information of agritourism such as types, ownership, characteristics, their locations, scale of operations?
    ann objectives • To find out the important issues and challenges of the sector.
    • To analyze general information of agritourism such as types, ownership, characteristics, their Locations, scale of operations etc.
    i dont no how to create…..

  223. It is so good so nice. My title is ‘Challenges of BPR implementation.’ Am on the right track if identify “success and failure factors as independent variables and” and “implementation as a dependent variable”

  224. Hi sir. can you please help me about my research about TEACHERS HOME VISITATION TO REDUCE STUDENTS TRUANCY: AN ASSESSMENT. i don’t know how to make a conceptual framework of it. I’ll be so glad if you can read my comment. Thank you.

  225. Hi sir. can you please help me about my research about TEACHERS HOME VISITATION TO REDUCE STUDENTS TRUANCY: AN ASSESSMENT. i don’t know how to make a conceptual framework of it. I’ll be so glad if you can read my comment. Thank you!

  226. Hello Patric my tittle is the impact of conditional cash transfer in education I need u to help to identify the independent and dependent variable

    1. Dear Delly, you need to narrow down your dependent variable, i.e., education (whatever it is you want to know about it). Is it the level of education attained by the children? Is it the indigent student’s performance in school? You need to be specific.

  227. hello, my topic is about “the job opportunities of senior high school graduates in San Antonio” what would be my conceptual framework sir ?

  228. Hi Sir! Can you help me with my theoretical
    and conceptual framework?
    My topic is all about ” Report management system of PNP tibiao in Antique..

    Thank u sir 🙂

    1. Dear Mylene, there is no need for you to formulate a conceptual framework if what you want to do is just to describe the report management system (RMS) of PNP Tibiao. What is your intention to do research on the RMS?

  229. please after finding the dependent and independent variables, what do you do with them?
    what do you write?
    my topic is “patients perception on lower limb prosthetic device” my independent variable is “patients perception” and the dependent variable is “lower limb prosthetic device”, so please after i identify this, what will i write again as the conceptual framework.

  230. Dear Sir,
    I’m glad that you had help everyone in teaching how to make a conceptual framework in the research study. It’s my first time to write a research work and I find some difficulty in making it. My proposed study is “Students’ Reading Deficiencies and its effect on Reading Comprehension”. What would be my dependent and independent variable? How will I make my conceptual framework?
    Thank you so much in advance sir. Your response is in great help for me.

  231. All thanks to you Mr. Patrick; Please my Topic is IMPACT OF TRAINING ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF EMPLOYEES (FIRST CITY MONUMENT BANK) Pls How will I Make my Conceptual Framework? What will be my Thesis Statement and as well my Dependable and undependable Verables…pls Help me to Narrow down the Details and all the Necessary Elements Required on my Conceptual Framework….thanks sir.

  232. I have read your guideline. I hade difficulty when my thesis supervisor told me to do a theoretical framework, I didn’t know what it was but now understand very well. But I would like to be helped to make my variables. My topic is: The Effects of Rehabilitation Centers on the Child in Conflict with the Law.
    In m y study I aim to find the child welfare in the term of the Child rights.

    Sir can you help me to find my variables?

    Thanks a lot.

  233. Hi!

    I am doing a qualitative research with some little quantitative aspects in it. My PhD title reads “effectiveness of multimedia learning in promoting self-empowerment among girls in Tanzania. A case study of an open learning project.
    This Open learning project uses multimedia learning as a means to deliver learning to learners. It is an alternative learning to girls who missed the learning opportunity to formal schooling due to child, early and forced marriages.

    My research objectives focuses on:
    opportunities and challenges in using multimedia learning,
    assessing the learning content developed in multimedia format
    getting experiences of the learners in learning
    assessing the benefits resulting from the learning and
    seeking recommendations for scaling up and sustaining the project.

    I am trying to figure out how to develop my conceptual framework. Please your advise will help!

    1. Hy
      Can you please help me in generating conceptual frame work for relationalism in marketing channels and marketing strategies

  234. I am doing my thesis on solid waste management, the study intend show the suitable area for reallocation of the city dumping site. I have failed to comeup with the conceptual framework plz I need your help

  235. please am still confuse on this conceptual framework, can you help on this topic; strategies for involving communities in the administration of secondary schools, how to write the conceptual framework. thanks

  236. Sir good pm can u help how to make a conceptual framework for a thesis .my title is “cash handling of selected convenience store in our city ” .pls help sir

  237. Greetings,

    I have recently purchased the guide and it looks as though is the development process is not the same at the one required as per my assignment brief.

    The brief requires me to identify variables, develop a conceptual framework using these variables, review the conceptual framework to decide on a focus area (identify the knowledge gap), and then conduct a literature review to find possible solutions in addressing the focus area.

    Is there a systematic in going about developing a conceptual framework. I am more confused… Please advise.

  238. Sir, i still couldn’t fine the dependent and independent variables for my study. My topic is “The Development and Evaluation of Construction Safety Culture Index”. Can u give me your opinion so that i can move forward.

  239. sir, thanks for your text but i have a challenge. my MSc. thesis topic is on effectiveness and efficiency of procurement department in public institution. my supervisor has asked me to construct a conceptual framework out of ten other articles. please am finding it difficulty. i need your help as to how to go about it knowing very well how helpful your articles on conceptual framework is.
    i should be grateful to hear from you.

  240. hello Sir l am failing to come up with a conceptual framework my topic is on the constraints and opportunities of rural women participation in community development projects

  241. Hello my research is about the use of social media sites on strengthening entrepreneurial skill, what would be my conceptual framework? thankyou

  242. Hi! I’am so happy that I come across this site. I’ve been so tired of thinking as to what would be my independent and dependent variables of my study. My research topic is about the factors affecting the implementation of inclusive education: a basis for training for teachers. Please help! I would be very happy if you can lend a hand on me with my problem. Thank you!

  243. Im having trouble of what will be my conceptual framework and my research question my topic is THE EFFECT OF HIGH INTEREST RATES ON SME BUSINESS.

  244. Please I need help on my conceptual Framework.. My topic is Influence of effective Public Relations in Crisis Management :A study of Moshood Abiola Polytechnic

  245. hello!!
    scholars ,
    I need help on the conceptual frame work and theoretical framework on my topic “AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF TEACHERS AND PARENTS IN PUPIL PERFORMANCE MATHEMATICS “

  246. Dear Scholar
    The issue of conceptual framework is real challenging may you email me with Independent variable n dependent plus intervening variables. my topic is Significance of power supply to traders in the market.

  247. Hello Sir,
    This site is very useful for research students and i learnt and clarify most of my doubts.
    further i too wanted to clarify the independent and dependent variables for my research title: “optimise students’ choice in selecting a course from private institutes”.
    independent v: various factors influence in decision
    dependent v: students’ choice or student’s choice

    i reviewed the related literature and formulate my conceptual framework using above independent and dependent variables.
    now i am confused with theoretical framework of my study??
    is it same as conceptual framework??
    please help to clarify this doubts

    thank you,

  248. Hi Sir! Good day. I find it interesting and useful. Can I ask you something? What would be our conceptual framework if our topic is about Perceived Needs of BHW’s?

  249. Hello
    i really want to appreciate this write up for beginners like myself. its has giving me a clue to what i am looking for and just for a confirmation am writing on The Role of the Stock Exchange on Company’s Performance. i wish to be sure if my dependent variable is company’s performance with my independent variable being the stock exchange.
    Thank You.

  250. Sir Patrick please help me in my research . I cant distinguish my dependent variables and independent. I ask for help yesterday regarding conceptual framework but no response from you. my topic is : The impact of religious education on the the readiness of students to face the world of work a basis for an enhanced religious program in Senior High School. thanks a lot.

  251. Hi,
    I’m looking for a conceptual framework example for “Why Farmers don’t use internet or social media to sell their crops”. Can you please tell me the variables I should use?
    Thank you.

    1. Dear Suki,
      I believe you know a conceptual framework is derived following a specified theory that underpins a research work. The theory is also well described using a theoretical framework. And so, to develop a conceptual framework you first need to settle on a theory or theories that hold the problem your study seek to address. Then, you can follow the theoretical framework (which other researchers have proposed or developed) for your conceptual framework.
      For your topic or problem: “Why Farmers don’t use internet or social media to sell their crops”, the main issue is about BEHAVIOUR and so any theory that relates to ‘behaviour’ can be reviewed and adopted. I would like to suggest ‘Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen in 1988’; the Cognitive theory by Albert Bandura in 1925, and Rational choice theory by George Homas in 1961 to you. Wish you the best.

  252. Hi Sir Patrick,
    I am confused with my research topic on how to make a conceptual framework and what is the IV and DV? My topic is about the Phenomenological Study About The Lives of Selected Filipino Transgenders. IV= the lives of selected filipino trans and my DV= the mental, psychological and societal effects on their lives? Am I correct?
    Thank you Sir Patrick…this my first time to do a thesis/research.

  253. hi
    I’m just confused with the conceptual framework and which among the IV and DV of my research topic ” Level of social media addiction among Senior high school student”

  254. You are one of the excellent Research hope we may learn alot , MY Research topic: Challenges affecting the progress of Female Academic staff in leadership roles. what could be MY best conceptual framework and I Have decided to use empowerment theory, is it good theory to use?

  255. Hi Patrick
    My research topic is on Exploring the use of Test messages in accessing the risk of Type 2 diabetes among urban population sin kenya. I am try to come up with a conceptual framework for the above topic. Having read your explanations, My dependent variables would be the risk factors for Type 2 diabetes Eg Age, Welness,Family history etc and the Independent variable is the Risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Am i on track?

  256. Sir . I need a help for our research paper about “Factors affecting the students smoking habit” we need a conceptual framework and Dependent variables and independent variables.. I hope you can help me…

  257. Hello…my research Title is Preference of white collar job workers to buy online than to buy in malls….what would be my conceptual framework? I hope u can help me..
    Thank you!

    1. Dear Armella,
      Your topic is still broad. Narrow it down further. What do you want to look into? Is it difficulty in accessing water? Farmers difficulty in getting water for their farms? You need to be specific.

  258. Hello sir patrick.
    I am doing an undergraduate project snd my research topic is EFFECTS OF STAKEHOLDERS INVOKVEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A PROJECT,,the independent variable is Stakeholder involvement while the dependent variable is Project performance.
    kindly help me in designing a conceptual framework and the measurable variables

  259. Hi sir! can you help us how to make a conceptual framework for our Capstone? Our research title is ONLINE DOCUMENT REQUEST FORM SYSTEM .. I hope you can help us sir because we don’t know to make a conceptual framework and we also a beginner Thank you sir in advance

  260. Dear Dina, you don’t need a conceptual framework for your title. You are just making a system. I suppose you probably are an IT or Com Sci student. What you just need there are iterations to perfect your system. If you want to do research, then you should find first a problem then design an investigation to solve it. Maybe you can compare an existing document request system with your own and see if it’s better.

  261. Hello Sir, I am also confused how to make my research conceptual framework. I have 2 IV(Screen time and Personality Traits) and 2 DV ( Social Skills and Academic Performance). Please guide me which one should be moderator/ Mediator? what will the final shape of framework. Thanks A lot

  262. Dear Malik, review the literature and see if social skills (however you measure it) affect academic performance. If it does then it could serve as your moderator variable. Ideally, your independent variable should be something that can be manipulated. You cannot manipulate personality traits. Thus, personality trait can serve as your moderator variable.

  263. Dear sir, I have no idea how can I make my conceptual framework, My topic is Role of ICT to improve rural women income from vegetable production.and what will be dependent variable and independent variable. I ask you to help me with best regards.
    so much Thanks.

  264. I read some action research reports and I noticed they don’t have conceptual/theoretical frameworks. Is it correct that we don’t include conceptual/theoretical framework in action research paper?

    1. Dear Erleo,
      Thank you for reading this article. The conceptual framework is your own idea about what is going on. While it may be implied, you can show your conceptual framework to guide your readers what variables you have examined in your research.
      I hope that clarifies your query.

  265. I paid for the ebook few weeks ago but i have not yet received it. I was hoping to receive via my email? Kindly advise how am supposed to receive this copy on conceptual framework

  266. Hello sir.
    I am strugllinG In making my Conceptual framework, can You please help me And give me some idea? My reasearch title is perception BSSW first year student in using internet rather than the library in terms Of gathering information. thank you.

  267. Please,
    I am writing on “Assessing the effectiveness of the Youth in Agricultural Module” what would be my conceptual framework
    Thank you.

  268. Sir,
    I have selected a topic as impact of participatory management systems and profit sharing models on a particular organization. What can be my dependent and independent variables and how should my conceptual framework look.

  269. I’m finding it difficult to do my The conceptual framework of my topic ‘HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ITS EFFECT ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS’

    please,help me out….thank you

  270. my topic is
    A study on livelihood strategies and socio economic status of urban slums women in hyderabad and secunderabad

  271. Dear Sir,
    My research topic is on Factors affecting implementation of project communication plan .Please may you assist how I can come up with a relevant conceptual framework?

  272. Dear sir. please help me to my conceptual and theoretical framework ” The Spirit of Free Enterprise among small scale retailers”

  273. Dear sir,
    I’m doing a research on waste management and disposal. Can you please help me on how to write a conceptual framework for this.

  274. Hi please help me with my conceptual framework my topic is assess the knowledge attitude and practices of women on utilisation of tetanus vaccine

  275. Please help me develop a conceptual framework. My topic is “An analysis of the regulatory framework governing mobile money services in Uganda”. I will be grateful because I have had issues trying to identify the variables here under. Thank you

  276. hello thanks so much for the guide, how ever i have a problem on coming up with my framework. my topic is electronic tax administration and performance of small business enterprises.
    i need some help please.

    1. Dear Mary,
      If your intention is to find out if there is an improved performance of small businesses because of the electronic tax administration, then your independent variable may be the time it takes to comply with tax requirements and whatever variable on performance of the business you want to measure.
      I hope that helps.

  277. Hy
    Can you please help me in generating conceptual frame work for relationalism in marketing channels and marketing strategies

  278. Hello, I am having problem with understanding research in general and I hope I will get there for sure. Now I am struggling with conceptual framework. My topic is Factors affecting infant and young child feeding practices in Okavango district: case study of Shakawe clinic.

    1. Dear Tshekoetsile,
      I could not see the reason why you need to know the factors affecting feeding practices. What’s wrong with it? Can you measure child feeding practices? What are examples? Maybe what you just want to do is to document the child feeding practices.

  279. Dear Everyone,
    I noticed many of you have difficulty coming up with your conceptual framework because you have not yet reviewed the literature. You need to read first about studies done regarding your topic so that you will be able to define your variables. Be clear about your topic. What is at issue? What is the objective of your study? Answer these questions first before framing your conceptual framework. Follow the steps in the article.

  280. thanks for lesson simple and clear my difficult is its mandatory conceptual frame work to be generated from known literature review

  281. Good day Sir. I appreciate your writing. Is it a must for every research work to have the two variables ( dependent and independent variables )? Are there not topics that does not require the use of these variables?

  282. Dear Jonathan, your research objectives tells you if you need the dependent and independent variables. If your method requires only observation and recording that observation for some future use to researchers, you need not have the dependent and independent variables. These are applicable to investigations that intend to establish cause and effect. For example, describing a new species does not need independent and dependent variables.

  283. hi Patrick, im having difficulty on how to do literature review my topiv is How effective leaderrship can facilitate change in improvement and innovation, my supervisor keep on telling me that i need to literature review ech concept even at mehodology chapter, im totally do not know what she meant and how to do that? please help me as soon as possible my final draft is duing soon

  284. I have difficult on preparing the conceptual framework my title is ” communication and customer relationship management” please help me

    1. Dear Evee, your title is still too broad that’s why you have difficulty. Convert these issues into something that you can fully understand and measure. For example, customer feedback and its relationship to business profitability. It answers the question: Does customer feedback enhance a business’ performance? Feedback is your independent variable and business performance is your dependent variable.
      I hope that helps.

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