Conceptual Framework: A Step by Step Guide on How to Make One

What is a conceptual framework? How do you prepare one? This article defines the meaning of conceptual framework and lists the steps on how to prepare it. A simplified example is added to strengthen the reader’s understanding.

In the course of preparing your research paper as one of the requirements for your course as an undergraduate or graduate student, you will need to write the conceptual framework of your study. The conceptual framework steers the whole research activity. The conceptual framework serves as a “map” or “rudder” that will guide you towards realizing the objectives or intent of your study.

What then is a conceptual framework in the context of empirical research? The next section defines and explains the term.

Definition of Conceptual Framework

A conceptual framework represents the researcher’s synthesis of literature on how to explain a phenomenon. It maps out the actions required in the course of the study given his previous knowledge of other researchers’ point of view and his observations on the subject of research.

In other words, the conceptual framework is the researcher’s understanding of how the particular variables in his study connect with each other. Thus, it identifies the variables required in the research investigation. It is the researcher’s “map” in pursuing the investigation.

As McGaghie et al. (2001) put it: The conceptual framework “sets the stage” for the presentation of the particular research question that drives the investigation being reported based on the problem statement. The problem statement of a thesis presents the context and the issues that caused the researcher to conduct the study.

The conceptual framework lies within a much broader framework called theoretical framework. The latter draws support from time-tested theories that embody the findings of many researchers on why and how a particular phenomenon occurs.

Step by Step Guide on How to Make the Conceptual Framework

Before you prepare your conceptual framework, you need to do the following things:

  1. Choose your topic. Decide on what will be your research topic. The topic should be within your field of specialization.
  2. Do a literature review. Review relevant and updated research on the theme that you decide to work on after scrutiny of the issue at hand. Preferably use peer-reviewed and well-known scientific journals as these are reliable sources of information.
  3. Isolate the important variables. Identify the specific variables described in the literature and figure out how these are related. Some abstracts contain the variables and the salient findings thus may serve the purpose. If these are not available, find the research paper’s summary. If the variables are not explicit in the summary, get back to the methodology or the results and discussion section and quickly identify the variables of the study and the significant findings. Read the TSPU Technique on how to skim efficiently articles and get to the important points without much fuss.
  4. Generate the conceptual framework. Build your conceptual framework using your mix of the variables from the scientific articles you have read. Your problem statement serves as a reference in constructing the conceptual framework. In effect, your study will attempt to answer a question that other researchers have not explained yet. Your research should address a knowledge gap.

Example of a Conceptual Framework

Statement number 5 introduced in an earlier post titled How to Write a Thesis Statement will serve as the basis of the illustrated conceptual framework in the following examples.

Thesis statement: Chronic exposure to blue light from LED screens (of computer monitors and television) deplete melatonin levels thus reduce the number of sleeping hours among middle-aged adults.

The study claims that blue light from the light emitting diodes (LED) inhibit the production of melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep and wake cycles. Those affected experience insomnia; they sleep less than required (usually less than six hours), and this happens when they spend too much time working on their laptops or viewing the television at night.

conceptual framework
Fig. 1 The research paradigm illustrating the researcher’s conceptual framework.

Notice that the variables of the study are explicit in the paradigm presented in Figure 1. In the illustration, the two variables are 1) number of hours devoted in front of the computer, and 2) number of hours slept at night. The former is the independent variable while the latter is the dependent variable. Both of these variables are easy to measure. It is just counting the number of hours spent in front of the computer and the number of hours slept by the subjects of the study.

Assuming that other things are constant during the performance of the study, it will be possible to relate these two variables and confirm that indeed, blue light emanated from computer screens can affect one’s sleeping patterns. (Please read the article titled “Do you know that the computer can disturb your sleeping patterns?” to find out more about this phenomenon) A correlation analysis will show whether the relationship is significant or not.

e-Book on Conceptual Framework Development

Due to the popularity of this article, I wrote an e-Book designed to suit the needs of beginning researchers. This e-Book answers the many questions and comments regarding the preparation of the conceptual framework. I provide five practical examples based on existing literature to demonstrate the procedure.

So, do you want a more detailed explanation with five practical, real-life examples? Get the 52-page e-Book NOW!


McGaghie, W. C.; Bordage, G.; and J. A. Shea (2001). Problem Statement, Conceptual Framework, and Research Question. Retrieved on January 5, 2015 from

©2015 January 5 P. A. Regoniel

Cite this article as: Regoniel, Patrick (January 5, 2015). Conceptual Framework: A Step by Step Guide on How to Make One [Blog Post]. In SimplyEducate.Me. Retrieved from

22 thoughts on “Conceptual Framework: A Step by Step Guide on How to Make One”

  1. I heard about conceptual framework recently and I’m supposed to include it in my paper. I am doing determinants of vegetables. Could you please offer some assistance on how to go by it?
    I really need an extra hand on how to go by mine, even if a sample is available, I would really appreciate.

  2. I heard about a conceptual framework from a friend and I want to use it in my study titled conceptual framework in teaching and learning in electrical technology. Infact I am confused in drawing the objectives because ideas from others. when I accidentally login your website I found that you can be a solution to my problem. please I will appreciate if given attention. thank you

  3. My research top is : Roles of negotiate in conflict resolution, a case of Gulu Uganda.

    Question, does this research top fit in well for Governance and international relations student?
    How best can I come up with the conceptual framework? Considering the IV and DV.
    Any help?

  4. I really need help on how to design a framework of impact assessment of reuse of electronic waste in a company I am doing an internship with. Can you help me with the step by step guide on what to do

  5. Dear sir regoniel, i am having a hard time about how to make conceptual framework of my thesis, please help me. My study title is ‘determinants of speacialty preferences among radiologic technologist and its impact to job satisfaction. Please sir i need your help. Thank you in advance.

    1. Kindly help me in designing a conceptual framework. My resesrch topic is on RRFERRAL PROCESS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING ITS UTILIZATION IN SELECTED HEALTHCARE INSTITUTIONS

  6. please I need you to help me develope the theoritcal and conceptual framework my topic is the impact of exchange rate on construction project delivery in the construction industry

    1. So how would you learn it if he has to develop it for you? Please, I don’t mean to be mean but academics does not work that way. You read through and then ask for questions for guide. That way, you would learn for future. You get what I mean?

  7. Dear Patrick,

    I thank you immensely for the blog posts. I am super grateful! You wouldn’t really understand how helpful this is to me.

    Thank you!

  8. My study is about investigating the uterotonic activity of herbal medicines that induce labour. I need to produce a conceptual framework. Please help.

  9. The topic of my technical study is titled I quote, ‘ The impacts of informal land subdivision in peri-urban areas’ case study of XYZ municipality , please kindly advise on how to formulate a conceptual framework of my study.

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