Do you know how to write the results section of a research paper? How about the discussion section? Here are 9 tips on how to do it.
Writing the results and discussion section could be one difficulty that you encounter when writing your first research manuscript. There is no simple hard and fast rule in doing it, but the following guide can help you start off with confidence.
The results and discussion section are also referred to as the data presentation, analysis, and interpretation section. You present the results, show the analysis, and interpret the outcome of the analysis.
As a takeoff point, it would help if we separate these two terms, i.e., results and discussion, into simply the results and the discussion as separate parts of the paper. In some universities and usually in scientific journals, however, these are taken as one.
How to Write the Results Section of a Research Paper
As the term connotes, write only the results of your study. What comprises the results? I describe it in the following paragraphs.
1. Graphs, tables, or photographs
We derive the observations from the application of the method or methodology that we use. These can be best presented using tables and graphs as an objective representation of the measurements that you made. Numbers are more definite approximations of reality compared to just mere words. Words are more subjective and replete with misunderstanding.
Be consistent with your units of measurement. If you start off with kg, then use the same unit all throughout your paper.
Never should you manipulate the outcome of your measurements. Be honest in presenting information even if the result is unexpected. Whether the result is positive or negative, present it. This is an objective move.
You may also add photographs whenever needed, but make sure these are relevant, not just whimsical addition to your paper or a means to flaunt your good photography skills; although it would be helpful to show such skill coupled with relevance. Pictures can speak a thousand words.
Give as much detail as possible in your presentation of the results. Read and reread your statements for clarity. Engage a competent friend or a colleague’s discerning eye for details.
2. Topic sentences or subheadings
It is easy to follow your presentation if you break this into meaningful subtopics based on your stated objectives. A one-to-one correspondence would be great. Say, the first subheading will be about objective one, the second subheading about objective two, and so on.
Notice that in writing this article, it is an easy read to have a subheading for every major thought. This makes for easy reading thus understanding. And the writing becomes logical.
3. Key results
We should state clearly the key results at the beginning of each paragraph. It should serve as the topic sentence (see the TSPU Principle). Support that statement with more detail, such as presenting the results of statistical analysis.
There is a significant positive relationship between the number of hours spent by students in answering mathematics questions and their examination score. This result is consistent across all grade levels in the three schools examined. Table 1 shows the correlation coefficients and their corresponding significance level.
How to Write the Discussion Section of a Research Paper
After examining several theses of previous years, I noticed that many undergraduate and even graduate students miss this part. They present the results and the analysis, but no discussion is in sight.
So what comprises the discussion? Here’s what should be present in the discussion part:
1. Trends and spatial differences
Trends refer to changes over time. Are your results showing an increasing, decreasing or just plain, constant direction? This trend should be clear in the graph that you presented.
Spatial differences refer to differences in space or location within the same time frame. Is there a significant difference between the two groups examined? Is there a difference in the morphological measurements of one group of animals obtained from one location compared to another group? These are questions that explore spatial differences.
2. Insightful interpretation of results
Insightful interpretation means well thought explanations. That means you will have to ponder deeply the results of your study and make a knowledgeable statement of your interpretation using the body of evidence at hand. This is where you cite evidences obtained by other authors. You either confirm or affirm other people’s work or refute using your own findings.
Be on guard in writing your generalizations. Make sure that the data you analyzed can be extrapolated or will allow you to predict somehow the behavior of one variable. If you have enough samples, then you may make a generalization.
How enough is enough, you may ask. If your data has little variability, as indicated by low variances, then it is possible that additional measurements will not change whatever trend you have.
Always match your generalization with whatever results you have. Conversely, do not generalize when you have very few samples. Don’t say 50% when you actually have only two, three, or even four samples described in your study. That’s plain absurd.
4. Exceptions to the rule
In scientific inquiry, not all things or factors are discovered. There are always unknown or unaccounted areas. This is the reason why everything is founded on probability. No one’s 100 percent sure. So you should never say “prove” as a matter of contention. “Prove” means 100% sure which never happens. There are always expected deviants from the norm.
5. Reasons things happen
Things happen because of something else. Reaction arises from action. These are called determining factors.
Are there reasons your results follow a trend? Is it evident in your study? If there is, then say it and explain why so, again based on your observations or evidence.
You may guess, but make it educated, meaning, you have done your homework. You have reviewed the literature and use it as a leverage for advancing your hypothesis or inference.
Does your finding support or refute what has been done so far? Does it support previously advanced hypotheses?
Remember that there is no such thing as a simple explanation of a complex phenomenon. Find one that is most aligned with your findings.
It would be interesting to be on the controversial side as long as you have done your study systematically and bias is reduced to a minimum.
6. The contribution of your work
What are the important things that your study has contributed so far in view of what has been laid out in the body of literature? Why is your work important and what things need to be investigated further?
From your set of questions, if many other questions arise, then your work has helped unravel other areas worthy of investigation. This is just how science works. The mysteries of the universe are uncovered, yet there are still many unknowns.
No human has an absolute understanding of everything. But if your work has the potential to make life better, then it’s a great accomplishment.
Follow these links on how to write the results section of a research paper and how to write the discussion section of a research paper as added readings to help you convey more effectively your research findings.
Kim Kastens, Stephanie Pfirman, Martin Stute, Bill Hahn, Dallas Abbott, and Chris Scholz (n.d.). How to write your thesis. Retrieved May 24, 2015 from http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~martins/sen_sem/thesis_org.html