*In the course of writing your thesis, one of the first terms that you encounter is the word variable. Failure to understand the meaning and the usefulness of variables in your study will prevent you from doing good research. What then are variables and how do you use variables in your study? I explain the concept below with lots of examples on variables commonly used in research.*

You may find it difficult to understand just what variables are in the context of research especially those that deal with quantitative data analysis. This initial difficulty about variables becomes much more confusing when you encounter the phrases “dependent variable” and “independent variable” as you go deeper in studying this important concept of research as well as statistics.

Understanding what variables mean is crucial in writing your thesis proposal because you will need these in constructing your conceptual framework and in analyzing the data that you have gathered. Therefore, it is a must that you should be able to grasp thoroughly the meaning of variables and ways on how to measure them. Yes, the variables should be measurable so that you will be able to use your data for statistical analysis.

I will strengthen your understanding by providing examples of phenomena and their corresponding variables below.

**Definition of Variables and Examples**

Variables are those simplified portions of the complex phenomena that you intend to study. The word variable is derived from the root word “vary”, meaning, changing in amount, volume, number, form, nature or type. These variables should be measurable, i.e., they can be counted or subjected to a scale.

The following examples of phenomena from a global to a local perspective. The corresponding list of variables is given to provide a clear illustration of how complex phenomena can be broken down into manageable pieces for better understanding and to subject the phenomena to research.

*Phenomenon*: climate change

*Examples of variables related to climate change*:

- sea level
- temperature
- the amount of carbon emission
- the amount of rainfall

*Phenomenon*: Crime and violence in the streets

*Examples of variables related to crime and violence*:

- number of robberies
- number of attempted murders
- number of prisoners
- number of crime victims
- number of laws enforcers
- number of convictions
- number of car napping incidents

*Phenomenon*: poor performance of students in college entrance exams

*Examples of variables related to poor academic performance*:

- entrance exam score
- number of hours devoted to studying
- student-teacher ratio
- number of students in the class
- educational attainment of teachers
- teaching style
- the distance of school from home
- number of hours devoted by parents in providing tutorial support

*Phenomenon*: Fishkill

*Examples of variables related to fish kill*:

- dissolved oxygen
- water salinity
- temperature
- age of fish
- presence or absence of parasites
- presence or absence of heavy metal
- stocking density

*Phenomenon*: Poor crop growth

*Examples of variables related to poor crop growth*:

- the amount of nitrogen in the soil
- the amount of phosphorous in the soil
- the amount of potassium in the ground
- the amount of rainfall
- frequency of weeding
- type of soil
- temperature

Notice in the above examples of variables that all of them can be counted or measured using a scale. The expected values derived from these variables will, therefore, be in terms of numbers, amount, category or type. Quantified variables allow statistical analysis. Variable correlations or differences are then determined.

**Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables**

Which of the above examples of variables are the independent and the dependent variables? The independent variables are just those variables that may influence or affect the other variable, i.e., the dependent variable.

For example, in the first phenomenon of climate change, temperature (independent variable) may influence sea level (dependent variable). Increased temperature will cause expansion of water in the sea. Thus, sea level rise on a global scale may occur. In the second phenomenon, i.e., crime and violence in the streets, the independent variable may be the number of law enforcers and the dependent variable is the number of robberies.

I will leave to you the other variables so you can figure out how this works.

How will you know that one variable may cause the other to behave in a certain way? Finding the relationship between variables require a thorough review of the literature. Through a review of the relevant and reliable literature, you will be able to find out which variables influence the other variable. You do not just simply guess relationships between variables. The whole process is the essence of research.

At this point, I believe that the concept of the variable is now clear to you. Share this information to your peers who may have difficulty in understanding what the variables are in research.

©2012 October 22 P. A. Regoniel

*SimplyEducate.Me*. Retrieved from http://simplyeducate.me/2012/10/22/what-are-examples-of-variables-in-research/

thanks a lot

Thank you, I am struggling with trying to develop a conceptual framework for my future dissertation, this article was a lot easier to understand than my text books!

In the last line of the second paragraph under “Difference betw indep and dep variables” you didn’t finish your edit, sooooooo take a look again, do you want to talk about crime or student success?

And thank you for writing these simplified explanations, I’m ready to tackle my proposal again, with renewed confidence!

Thank you for your feedback Randi. That’s very much appreciated.

wow! information made simple! Finally I get a clear understanding of what variable means. I am also able to differentiate between the two. What a relief!

Thank You very much

thanx alot. Your well simplified work has given me insight in my research approach

Thanks for the explanation. I’ll really appreciate more if you can elaborate the roles variables play in research. Thank you.

please help me answer these questions:

1. Should a dissertation always have independent and dependent variables?

2. Does a good dissertation always need quantitative variables?

Please reply me or email me at arvella_medina@yahoo.com

wow this is very helpful i am just strugling to write my thesis.

The explanation is simply great. More grease to your elbow.

Thank you Ogah. It’s great to know the article’s useful.

Great explanation! easy to understand,this article can help me a lot for my report about conceptual framework and research study. Now I understand what variable means, as well as the difference between independent and dependent variable. Thank you so much!

The problem of DVs and IVs above is that they can be either. Example given is temperature being the IV and sea level being the DV. However, temperature can also be the DV if carbon emissions are the IV. Equally, carbon emissions can be the DV if car sales are the IV…You’re right Gabe. Independent variables may be the dependent variables. The objectives of the study will define which one/s is/are the DV or the IV. In modeling ecosystems, if either of the variables could influence the other, these are called feedback loops.

Patrick,

Thank you for this article. I really appreciate your efforts and your way of explaining it. Very simple but extremely meaningful. As I was reading the climate change sample, I was asking myself where are the DV and IV, and then whether the temperature would be listed under the DV or IV. I was going to ask that question but I am glad that Gabe asked it and you answered it perfectly.

Great it helped you Bard. Thank you for visiting SimplyEducate.me and reading the articles.

Thank you for such an easy explanation.

Thank you so very much.

totally brief and simply explanation. Thanks a lot, this helps understand variables better.

Thanks for the explanation, keep on the good work…

For me you simplified it when you said Independent variable is the cause, I just say thank you.

The explanation on DV and IV was simply fantastic. it helped defused the tension on my brain. thank you very much!

Great to know your feedback y.y. barry.

Thanks, for explaining how to use variables. My understanding is better.

Welcome Issy. I’m glad to be of help. Thank you for reading.

what asimpler and short explanation of variables!more examples on theoretical framework

Thank you Janet. You may read my post about conceptual framework and its relation to theoretical framework here: http://simplyeducate.me/2015/01/05/conceptual-framework-a-step-by-step-guide-on-how-to-make-one/

I, with all my experience in research, would not put the explanation in such a plain, understandable way. kudos

Someone else explain statistics in the same plain language.

I am so pleased and impressed with this article that I am here redoing my framework for my dissertation. Most of the time tutors don’t explain this way and I think it is just great.

Dear Martin, great to hear your feedback! I’m happy to know my article helped you in your research venture. Let’s discover things for a better world. Share the information to your friends who may have difficulty along this concern.

Hi,

Do I have to depict the two variables within the topic of a thesis?

Dear Alvisswe,

I am not quite clear about your question. If you mean that you should include the two variables in your thesis title, that will be desirable. It gives the reader an idea about what you are investigating right there in the title.

I have been trying all these years to come out with research proposal for a doctoral programme with great difficulty. It’s like groping in the dark looking for a needle in a haystack. At a point I wanted to give up on the PhD programme. Your presentation has been fantastic. It wouldn’t have come at the right time. It’s a WOW! Very useful.

Can I please have your email?

My project topic is Extra judicial killings and involvement of military forces,how do i go about drawing my theoritical framework and what variables best suits

My project topic is Extra judicial killings and involvement of military forces,how do i go about drawing my conceptual framework and what variables best suits

Dear Quad, just follow the procedure outlined above. You need to be familiar with factors that surround extrajudicial killings. Since your conceptual framework reflects your thesis, you need to state your argument as your guide in your study. Here are some tips: http://simplyeducate.me/2016/01/23/three-tips-on-how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/

I was considering to enroll in statistics course to equip me in my consultancy work (socio-economic studies), found this site very informative, I need to really study though.

Thanks for visiting this site Annabelle. You need diligence to understand concepts that you can use in your consultancy. Thank you for visiting the site.

hi! What if there are more than the independent and dependent variable? How are we going to describe the other variable? For example A influence B then B gives impact to C.. Please help..

hi help me my research is about personnel empowerment and local government quality service what will be my conceptual frame work ???

Just open the forum page (http://simplyeducate.me/forum) abdul and I will answer you there.

My topic is : emplementing word processing in high school to improve students writing skills. Now, can you tell me what would be my variables? please.

Dear Eliseu, so why do you think word processing can improve students’ writing skills? Do you mean spell or grammar checks in MS word? You need to define your variable, as this article defines it.

Thank you so much. I have been struggling with the concept of variables. Now you have solved my problem. Thanks

Welcome Edward.

I appreciate the effort made in explaining the key variables with some relevant examples. However, there are still more to explain with regards to other variables such as: moderating variable, intervening variable, extraneous variables, mediating variable and confounding variable. If these can be explained with good examples especially in social researches, then a ot will have been done.

Dear Dr. Oyugi, you’re right. If you know about these kinds of variables then you are free to share them here. Thanks for dropping by.

Thank you for this.. And also for gabe’s concerned aboout those DV and IV.. Sorry for my grammar