This article simply tells what a budding researcher must include in Chapter 5-the Summary. It also includes the tense of the verb and the semantic markers which are predominantly used in writing the summary, conclusions and recommendations.
For others, writing the Chapter 5 is the easiest part in thesis writing, but there are groups of students who would like to know more about it. If you are one of them, this article is purposely written for you.
A. Writing the Summary
Your summary may include the following: (1) objectives of the study; (2) statement of the problem; (3) respondents; (4) sampling procedures; (5) method/s of research employed; (6) statistical treatment/s applied or hypotheses tested, if there is any; (7); and results.
If you notice, all the parts mentioned above are already included in your Chapters 1- 4. So, the challenge is on how you are going to briefly write and present it.
First, you must go direct to the point in highlighting the main points. There is no need to thoroughly explain the details. You must avoid copying and pasting what you have written in the previous chapters. Just KISS (keep it short and simple)!
Then, write sentences in simple past and use always the passive voice construction rather than the active voice. You must also be familiar with the different semantic markers.
When I was enrolled in Academic Writing in my masters degree, I learned that there are semantic markers which can be used in order not to repeat the same words or phrases such as additionally, also, further, in addition to, moreover, contrary to, with regard to, as regards, however, finally, during the past ___ years, from 1996 to 2006, after 10 years, as shown in, as presented in, consequently, nevertheless, in fact, on the other hand, subsequently and nonetheless..
Next, you may use the following guide questions to check that you have not missed anything in writing the summary:
- What is the objective of the study?;
- Who/what is the focus of the study?;
- Where and when was the investigation conducted?;
- What method of research was used?;
- How were the research data gathered?;
- How were the respondents chosen?;
- What statistical tools were applied to treat the gathered data? ; and
- Based on the data presented and analyzed, what findings can you summarize?
Finally, organize the summary of the results of your study according to the way the questions are sequenced in the statement of the problem.
B. Writing the Conclusions
Once you have written the summary, draw out a conclusion from each finding or result. It can be done per question or you may arrange the questions per topic or sub-topic, if there is any. But if your research is quantitative in nature, answer directly the research question and tell if the hypothesis is rejected or accepted based on the findings.
As to grammar, make sure that you use the present tense of the verb because it consists of general statement of the theory or the principle newly derived from the present study. So, don’t be confused because in your summary, you use past tense while in conclusion, you use present tense.
C. Writing the Recommendations
The recommendations must contain practical suggestions that will improve the situation or solve the problem investigated in the study. First, it must be logical, specific, attainable and relevant. Second, it should be addressed to persons, organizations, or agencies directly concerned with the issues or to those who can immediately implement the recommended solutions. Third, present another topic which is very relevant to the present study that can be further investigated by future researchers. But never recommend anything that is not part of your study or not being mentioned in your findings.
After organizing your thoughts as to what would- be the contents of your recommendations, you should write it using the imperative mood of the verb. Imperative mood is to express a request or a command. So, the tense is also simple present tense.
However, there are universities especially in the Philippines that require a specific thesis format to be followed by students. Thus, as a student, you must conform to the prescribed format of your college or university.
Nordquist, R. n.d. Imperative Mood. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/impermood.htm
© 2014 July 29 M. G. Alvior