Four Major Foundations of Curriculum and their Importance in Education

This article explains the four major foundations of curriculum and their importance in education. Examples are provided to stress the importance of curriculum in the academe.

Read on and reflect on some of the experiences you have had in school to match it with how philosophy, history, psychology and sociology influence those experiences of yours.

The Influence of Philosophy to Curriculum

Educators, curriculum makers and teachers must have espoused a philosophy or philosophies that are deemed necessary for planning, implementing, and evaluating a school curriculum. The philosophy that they have embraced will help them define the purpose of the school, the important subjects to be taught, the kind of learning students must have and how they can acquire them, the instructional materials, methods and strategies to be used, and how students will be evaluated.

Likewise, philosophy offers solutions to problems by helping the administrators, curriculum planners, and teachers make sound decisions. A person’s philosophy reflects his/her life experiences, social and economic background, common beliefs, and education.

When John Dewey proposed that “education is a way of life”, his philosophy is realized when put into practice. Now, particularly in the Philippines, Dewey’s philosophy served as anchor to the country’s educational system.

History and Its Influence to Curriculum

The history of one’s country can affect its educational system and the kind of curriculum it has. If we are going to trace the formal beginning of curriculum, we get back in time to Franklin Bobbit’s book entitled, “The Curriculum” which was published in 1918.

From the time of Bobbit to Tyler, many developments in the purposes, principles and contents of the curriculum took place. Please read the Six Famous Curriculum Theorists and their Contributions to Education for more information.

The Influence of Psychology to Curriculum

Curriculum is influenced by psychology. Psychology provides information about the teaching and learning process. It also seeks answers as to how a curriculum be organized in order to achieve students’ learning at the optimum level, and as to what amount of information they can absorb in learning the various contents of the curriculum.

The following are some psychological theories in learning that influenced curriculum development:

1. Behaviorism

Education in the 20th century was dominated by behaviorism. The mastery of the subject matter is given more emphasis. So, learning is organized in a step-by-step process. The use of drills and repetition are common.

For this reason, many educational psychologists viewed it mechanical and routine. Though many are skeptical about this theory, we can’t deny the fact the influences it had in our educational system.

2. Cognitivism

Cognitive theorists focus on how individuals process information, monitor and manage their thinking. The basic questions that cognitive psychologists zero in on are:

  • How do learners process and store information?
  • How do they retrieve data and generate conclusions?
  • How much information can they absorb?

With their beliefs, they promote the development of problem-solving and thinking skills and popularize the use of reflective thinking, creative thinking, intuitive thinking, discovery learning, among others.

3. Humanism

Humanism is taken from the theory of Gestalt, Abraham Maslow’s theory and Carl Rogers’ theory. This group of psychologists is concerned with the development of human potential.

In this theory, curriculum is after the process, not the product; focuses on personal needs, not on the subject matter; and clarifying psychological meanings and environmental situations. In short, curriculum views founded on humanism posits that learners are human beings who are affected by their biology, culture, and environment. They are neither machines nor animals.

A more advanced, more comprehensive curriculum that promotes human potential must be crafted along this line. Teachers don’t only educate the minds, but the hearts as well.

4. Sociology and Curriculum

There is a mutual and encompassing relationship between society and curriculum because the school exists within the societal context. Though schools are formal institutions that educate the people, there are other units of society that educate or influence the way people think, such as families and friends as well as communities.

Since the society is dynamic, there are many developments which are difficult to cope with and to adjust to. But the schools are made to address and understand the changes not only in one’s country but in the world as well.

Therefore, schools must be relevant by making its curriculum more innovative and interdisciplinary. A curriculum that can address the diversities of global learners, the explosion of knowledge through the internet, and the educational reforms and policies recommended or mandated by the United Nations.

However, it is also imperative that a country must have maintained a curriculum that reflects and preserves its culture and aspirations for national identity. No matter how far people go, it is the country’s responsibility to ensure that the school serves its purpose of educating the citizenry.

Now, it is your time to reflect. Can you think of your experiences in which the major foundation of curriculum can explain it?

Try to ask yourself the following questions:

  1. Why should I take history, philosophy, psychology or even PE subjects in college?
  2. Why is it that there is K to 12 and the mother tongue-based curriculum being implemented by the Department of Education?
  3. Why is there institutional amalgamation?
  4. Why is there “One UP” (One University of the Philippines) now in the Philippines?
  5. Why is there a need for a globalized higher education?

These questions imply that change will take place in the near future. So, brace yourself for the many changes that will take place in education!

Reference

Bilbao, P. P., Lucido, P. I., Iringan, T. C., and R. B. Javier (2008). Curriculum development. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc.

© 2015 January 9 M. G. Alvior

Cite this article as: Alvior, Mary G. (January 9, 2015). Four Major Foundations of Curriculum and their Importance in Education. In SimplyEducate.Me. Retrieved from http://simplyeducate.me/2015/01/09/4-major-foundations-of-curriculum-and-their-importance-in-education/

179 thoughts on “Four Major Foundations of Curriculum and their Importance in Education”

    1. Hi, Heng Srien! Thank you so much for a wonderful comment. I wish that you will also share this site to your family and friends. God bless.

      1. can i ask if you can give some examples of situation where those foundation of curriculum can be use? each foundtion

      2. What are the Specific Examples of Philosophical, Historical, Psychological, and Social Foundations ?

        Can you give me a philosophy based on the existing philosophies of education through graphic organizers ?

    1. Hi, Tom! I don’t exactly get what you mean. But if you don’t clearly understand something , please ask me and I am willing to help you. Thank you so much.

      Regards,

      Mary

      1. Can you please give or cite a situations or samples of each foundations of curriculum? I need it for the completion of my Field Study subject…ASAP please..

      2. HI! It would be easier for me to answer you if I know your field of specialization or degree, so that I can explain it well. Anyway, I will give you examples as to how a curriculum can be developed using the four foundations. Let’s simplify it. If you are doing it for a degree program (macro level), It means that the subjects to be offered be related to the four foundations. For example, students should have at least one subject under philosophy, history, psychology and sociology as part of the basic subjects. However, it depends on your Curriculum Development Committee guidelines, procedures, and policies. In some universities, the subjects are arranged as: basic, major, cognates, and electives. So, in the basic subjects, you can think or choose a particular subject under philosophy, and so on. Here are the specific examples (Philippine setting):
        Philosophy – Introduction to Philosophy/ Philosophy and Logic
        History – History of the Philippines
        Psychology – Introduction to Psychology
        Sociology – Physical Education

        You may also think of other subjects that are related to the program and to the need of the students. In the Philippines, there is a Commission on Higher Education that set the minimum standards. It prescribes what subjects to take and how many units be given per subject, per semester, and the total units for the program. My only suggestion is to have at least one subject as a representative of each major foundation. However, there are already reforms in the educational system. The basic subjects are now placed in Grades 11 and 12, in the Philippines. I hope I am able to answer your questions. God bless to your endeavour.

    1. Dear Michael,

      Hi! Thanks for reading, but can you be specific what information you need? Are you asking for my courses during my MSc, or are you asking the courses that we offer for MSc Program? Since this site is not owned by a university, Dr. Patrick Regoniel currently works in Palawan State University in the Philippines. He is a professor in the Graduate School. His specializations are Environmental Science and Public Administration. You may write or contact him in this site if you are interested in our Graduate School Programs. If you still have other questions, I am willing to help you.Again, thank you so much.

      Regards,

      Mary

    2. Dear Michael,

      Hi! Thanks for reading, but can you be specific what information you need? Are you asking for my courses during my MSc, or are you asking the courses that we offer for MSc Program? Since this site is not owned by a university, Dr. Patrick Regoniel currently works in Palawan State University in the Philippines. He is a professor in the Graduate School. His specializations are Environmental Science and Public Administration. You may write or contact him in this site if you are interested in our Graduate School Programs. If you still have other questions, I am willing to help you. Again, thank you so much.

      Regards,

      Mary

    3. So i am asian man so i hardly to understand the contexts, so can u answer what’s the most important of studying Foundation of education?

      1. Hi, Mathsary. The most important reason for studying the foundation of education is that it contains all the essential concepts. If you know them well, you will be a qualified, efficient and compassionate teacher someday.

      2. Good after noon kindly explain how those foundation reflect the development of foundation in the 21st century classroom
        Then,describe the different foundation of curriculum

  1. Hi, Obadiah! Thank you so much. You may also read other articles in that site. Just take a look at the contents. Enjoy reading!

    1. Hi! Thanks for reading my article. The foundations of curriculum can be seen or manifested in too many ways. It can be the subjects, strategies, and activities inside and outside the school. As to your question, I think I could not give you the best example because that would be quite debatable. But here are specific examples for each:

      Philosophy – the emphasis 3Rs (reading, writing, and arithmetic), as basic subjects.
      History – lessons like our national heroes, national plants and animals.
      Sociology – field trips like visiting the zoo.
      Psychology – the use of audio-lingual approach or reading dialogues (from behaviourism).

      I hope that I am able to answer your question.

      Thanks a lot.

  2. Please Mary help me out on this .

    1.the importance of psychogical foundations to curriculum developers
    2.importance of sociological foundations to curriculum developers

    1. Dear Kirui Haroon,

      We, curriculum developers, recognize the importance of psychology and sociology in designing a curriculum. Psychology is important because it gives us ideas about the teaching and learning process. A curriculum that is written may seem perfect, but once we implement it in the classroom, some problems may arise because we are handling different individuals. So, we have to think and analyse (or shall I say, psychologize) our students in order for them to learn and understand what we teach or facilitate.

      Likewise, sociology is important particularly now that our education is getting global. We need to know how students will react in a multi-cultural setting and we need to avoid or lessen the problems in our society. Sociology can help us solve problems in life.

      I hope that I have answered your question. Thanks a lot.

      1. Good afternoon kindly explain how those foundation reflect the development of curriculum in th 21st century classroom

        Describe the different foundation of curriculum

      1. well documented, i hope you will be able to able in curriculum development. My question is these :philosophy,psychology,sociology and history are the major foundations of curriculum.may u shed some more light on the above wth specific reference to how they can be linked.

  3. Mary, thanks for your wonderful efforts to present this information . I will be more glad if you add something on professional foundation and educational foundations. be blessed

    1. Dear Kibet,

      Thanks for your suggestion. Yeah, those topics are also essential. If I have time, I will write again. God bless!

  4. Hi Mary,I really love the way you are handling this field of curriculum.I would like to pursue a masters program in curriculum.Could you please guide me…thanks in advance

  5. Hi Mary, thanks for the good research you have done in the field of curriculum.
    Kindly give me some information about Historical foundations of curriculum design

    1. Hi, Betty! That’s also a good topic to write about. If I have time, I will write about it. Thanks so much and God bless.

      1. That’s great,now how does the psychological aspect in curriculum foundation contribute to curriculum development in Kenya?

  6. Please, kindly highlight these psychologica theories:cognitivism , behaviorism and humanism and it’s influence on education for me.

    1. Hi, Gloria. The article answers your questions in an indirect manner. But don’t you worry, I will give you specific examples and their influence to education..

      1. BEHAVIORISM – promotes drills, repetition and memory recall – – – the use of audio lingual approach in teaching language (English & Filipino). Another influence is asking students to memorize rules, lessons, facts or events. Asking and answering questions with who, what, when and where.

      2. COGNITIVISM – promotes critical thinking, etc. – – – use of problem solving, experiments, field trips.

      3. HUMANISM – promotes human potential, educates the minds and hearts – – – use of value-laden lessons, or after discussing the lesson, the teacher must introduce some values (virtues) that can be deduced from the topic.

      You may also read the article below, and other articles in this website. Just look at the left side corner of your desktop, click EDUCATION, and go to CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION.

      http://simplyeducate.me/2014/12/03/six-famous-curriculum-theorists-and-their-contributions-to-education/

      I wish that I am able to help you. I suggest that you read other articles or books about your questions. Thanks a lot.

      1. Helo miss Mary

        Please help with following theories..mental discipline theory,natural unfoldment theory,behavouirism and cognitivism.I can define them but could you please explain their philosophical outlooks for eachof these theories in relation of curriculum design and development in schools especially primary schools

  7. Is there anything common that binds the philosophical, sociological, paychology, historical, and legal bases of the curriculum?

    1. Hi, Aileen. Thanks for reading my article. As to your question, I think it is the purpose that binds all. If the purpose of putting up a school, institute, or a university is clear, then the owners, the school administrators or the governing body can choose what kind of philosophical, psychological, sociological, historical bases they must adopt including the legal bases and the emerging foundation which is based on economy. Remember, a school cannot exist without espousing these major foundations.

  8. Hi! Ms. Mary, here’s my another question. What will you do to make sure that you will be able to effectively implement the curriculum at the classroom level?

  9. Hello! thank for ur contribution i fed with ur post in my accademic carrier becouse i offer one course that correspond ur post .

  10. As a student of educational management, I have really benefited from the presentation. This will help me in understanding the module/course in curriculum studies.

  11. Hi ma’am mary can u pls help me? Will u pls give me an example of graphic organizer based on existing philosophies of education?pls.put even a short explanation thank you and godbless…

    1. Hi, April. Actually, I don’t really get what you mean. There are many graphic organizers, such as charts, diagrams, flowchart, KWL, venn diagram, among others. Probably, you are asked by your teacher to explain the existing educational philosophies through graphic organizers. Because as far as I know, graphic organizers are used as a way of explaining ideas in a systematic and logical manner. They are used particularly for visual learners. No particular graphic organizer is based on a particular educational philosophy. Please clarify to your teacher what he/she really meant. Thanks a lot.

  12. Can I ask a help?
    In my fs 4, im going to evolve my own philosophy based on the exesting philosophies of education and illustrate through a graphic organizer.
    Can you give me an example?

  13. To someone who wrote me anonymously on February 8, 2016 at 9:58AM. Here are my answers:

    As to specific examples of Philosophical, Historical, Psychological, and Social Foundations, please read the thread of conversations or comments in this article. You can find the answers there.

    Then, for the example of philosophy based on the existing philosophies of education through graphic organizers, please read my two articles from this site. Go to contents and look for, Edecolepmentalism and then. read this link, http://simplyeducate.me/2014/10/26/translating-the-edecolepmentalism-philosophy-into-a-universitys-vision-goals-and-program-objectives/.

  14. Under philosophical foundations of curriculum,what is the difference between subject matter theories and subject philosophies?

    1. Dear Sir Ken,

      Hi! As to your question, I would admit that I’m not familiar with the subject matter theories and subject philosophies. Are there subject matter theories and subject philosophies? What are the examples of those? As far as I know, there are educational philosophies and theories, in general. Now, it depends on the educators/administrators or teachers what they would like to apply in choosing or organizing their subjects or subject-matter. I would highly appreciate if you could give me the links or references regarding the subject matter theories and subject philosophies. Thank you.

  15. hi there ms. Mary

    I am a 3rd student from Laguna State Polytechnic University Taking up Bachelor of Elementary Education major in Early Childhood Education.
    Regarding to my specialization can you give me a specific example or situation of the four foundation of curriculum. thank you.

    1. hi ma’am Mary!

      kindly please answer this.
      “what will you do in an effort to share the knowledge you gained about the curriculum to your peers?

      I need this for my FS.

    2. Hi, Kenjoe. About your specialization, here are the examples:

      Philosophy – talk about common beliefs or about the names of philosophers
      History – talk about our national heroes or any cultural or national identities like our national flower, national animal, etc.
      Sociology – play, games or field trips
      Psychology – ask them questions with WHAT, and try to encourage them to ask questions with WHY. If they could already explain things, you may start asking them with WHY questions.

      Please help me popularize this site to Laguna State Polytechnic University.

      Regards,

      Dr. Mary

      1. philosphy does not really limit on the belief and the naming of the philosophers because it covers the whole aspects of knowledge and even the understanding from the query of human being guided by reason.

    3. Hi, kenjoe. Sorry for a delayed reply. Since your major is Early Childhood, here are the answers:
      1. psychology – use of objects with different colors, what they want or not. Another is exposing them to sounds.
      2. history – pictures of historical sites or maybe pictures of your countries identity.
      3. philosophy – maybe give them situations where they can identify what is good from bad. For example, giving them things which they do not own or possess.
      4. sociology – let them play or communicate with others.

  16. hi ma’am Mary!

    kindly please answer this.
    “what will you do in an effort to share the knowledge you gained about the curriculum to your peers?

    I need this for my FS.

    1. Hi, Quena. Once you learned something or discovered something about curriculum, particularly on the current trends, I think , it is your responsibility to share it with others. Curriculum is the heart of the school. That’s why it is important to be shared with others. On my part, I share it through this site for free. Thus, I am asking favour from you to help me share this site with others.

  17. Hi Ma’am Mary
    Mam can you please help me in my take home exam in curriculum development. 1. If you are the head of the institution what will you do to improve the curriculum? What do you expect that the students, teachers and the stakeholders will do? What are the foundation and legal basis of your curriculum?
    I am an AB graduate mam batch 2009, Now in 2. I am going to propose revision on my curriculum base on the K to 12 Curriculum in process. What are the foundation and legal basis of your propose curriculum?
    Any help you can extend ma’am is greatly appreciated. God Speed!

    1. Hi, Rosalin. The questions are very practical and personal. Since that is the exam, it must be you who should answer it. But to help you, I will give you my personal answer. One, the head can improve the curriculum by obeying/complying the requirements of CHED/DEPED or other institutions that make policies and regulations for the offering of programs. The head should make it sure that it is well implemented by monitoring and evaluating it. For the 2nd question, students, teachers, and other stakeholders only follow/obey, and cooperate with the schools, particularly if they see that what you are doing is meaningful to them. For the last question, I can’t answer that because I don’t know what you have proposed. It is better to ask your teacher. He/she is teaching that subject, therefore, he/she must be an expert in that field. You must be aware of the foundations, and once you know them, you should relate or connect them to your proposed curriculum. Thank you.

  18. Hi Ma’am Mary

    What are trends and issues in our education? How did the government address the issues in our education?

    1. Hi, again. Aren’t you aware that K12 in the Philippines is one of the issues and trends? The government instructed DEPED and CHED to answer the issues. There are trainings, seminars, public fora to address the problems.

    1. Hi, Niki Bharatdwaz. Honestly, your question is hard to answer because the it depends on your school and your country. As to your name, it seems you are not from the Philippines. So, better if you ask or interview the adminsitrators in your school particularly in secondary schools. But in my own point of view, read the educational philosophies so that you have a background, and then try to observe a secondary school if the philosophies were applied or implemented. Thank you.

  19. TO,
    Mary Alvior, PhD in Curriculum Development

    I am writing a research paper on “historical development of psychology and its impact on educational curriculum”. Kindly help me how should I frame my research outline.

    Thank You
    Lampu

    1. Hi, Lampu! I think you must have a list of educational psychologies from a historical viewpoint then, study the effect of each in the curriculum. Thank you so much.

      1. Thank you Mary,

        your suggestion has open my mind. When we talk educational psychologies from historical point, it reminds us those school of thoughts, like, structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, psychoanalysis etc. But as far as my knowledge is concern among these psychological thoughts behaviorism, cognitive, gestalt theory (Humanism) and psychoanalysis has more impact on curriculum.
        Thanking you very much

    1. Hi, Will! It’s nice to hear that. May I know what HONS mean? As to your topic, just explore anything that you are interested in and it must have many review of related literature and studies.

    1. Psychology can influence curriculum in so many ways. It focuses more on how to understand the learners acquire knowledge and process the information and store it in their long term memory. In short, if the teacher has background in psychology, he/she can easily teach the students learn and become successful someday.

  20. good evening ma’am can you help me how to explaine what is the use of curriculum foundation and the three curriculum foundation which is 1.psychology 2. sociology 3. philosophy .and give me a concrete example each foundation. hope you can help me ma’am I need it for my report.thank you.

    1. Hi Ellen Mae. If I am not mistaken, i have so many answers regarding your question. Please read the previous comments. But I can still answer your question. Curriculum foundation is the basis in making curriculum design. You must include the subjects under each foundation when you make a program. For example, most programs have the four foundations as subjects. Nest, there are actually four major foundation, and not three. For psychology, we have to determine how students learn and study. sociology is more on the interaction, and philosophy will make teachers solve the problems.

      It is also important that each degree program must have subjects from each foundation. For example, there are subjects like PE for sociology; Introduction to Psychology, and Logic for Philosophy.

  21. this so nice mary but i have a question
    how does curriculum developers being influenced by the psychological foundation in developing the curriculum

    1. Hi, Sarongoh! You have a very good question. Curriculum developers are influenced by the psychological foundation because whatever strategies and/or methodologies they suggest, or even the scheduling and the time of classes are dependent upon the psychological theories they advocate in. For example, if the time scheduling is to help students rest and eat their breakfast before going to school, what psychological theory is that? If you want to have a lot of group works and field trips, you are influenced by the constructivism.

  22. What are Philosophical and Sociological of foundation and give examples where those foundation is present- in the classroom, school and community ?

  23. Good day to Mrs Mary and the poster. i appriciate your effort and how you spelt out what curriculum foundation is all about. you have used simple language in a summary form. Indeed this is the work of Vetran in Curriculum development. keep it up. It has helped me alot in understanding the concept, and in writing my test also. Sincerely speaking I may say that: “This post was meant for me”
    Thumbs up.

    1. Thanks so much for your kind words. God bless! You may also contribute an article here particularly the educational system or best practices in your country.

  24. Sarongoh:
    Psychology study human as independent entity, how he perceive information, how he transform from unknown to known, how he develop from neonite to adulhood, how a child acquire skills knowledge, ideas, values, norms etc. Psychology study how human develop cognitively; Piaget theory, attitudinally, emotionally, socially,etc. with that in mind we can say that Psychology serves as one of the curriculum foundations since what is to be planned in curriculum must reflect the needs, aspirations, age and maturation, abilities and characteristics of the learners. so without psychology learner will not be adequately known. then if such happened then curriculum will not be suitable to the learner, and at the end educational objectives can not be achieved.

    I hope my scanty answer will help.
    Thank you.
    Ubaida Adamu, Education/Biology Undergraduate student from Gombe State University Nigeria.

      1. Good after noon kindly explain how those foundation reflect the development of foundation in the 21st century classroom
        Then,describe the different foundation of curriculum

  25. Good day!! Can you please help me provide an output about the Technological Foundations of Education?
    It would be highly appreciate if you could give me also references or links/ website. Thank you so much!! and God bless!

  26. Hi, can i ask if how important that four Major foundations of curriculum in education, or in the curriculum development process?

    we’ve been discussing that in our class during our PEC course i still don’t get the point. and we will be having an activity, we will make a graphic organizers for that four major foundations..can u give me some ideas?
    i am hoping you can answer or give me an insights bout my question.

    1. Hi, Jaybee. I think I already answered this kind of questions earlier. Please explore this site regarding education/ curriculum. Read my articles one by one and the comments.

  27. I enjoy your contributions to support the establishment of sound foundations for educators, teachers, administrators etc. I am also interested in education and working in the fields of education. Wish you continuing success!

    1. Hi, Lechell. I think I already answered this question. Please read all my articles in this site and the comments I had given. Look for the EDUCATION corner at the left side of this site.

    1. Hi, Elvera. I wish I have time to write an article about the curriculum design models. I’m getting sick lately and I have so many work to do so.

  28. hi maam how would you evolve phylosophy based on the existing philosophies in education. Can you illustrate it in a graphic organizer and explain how it will applied if you are going to put up your own school?

    1. Hi, Seth. I think you should read all my articles in this site. Many of my readers have the same question. Just read the comments and the answers at the end of the article.

  29. Thank you so much for a brief explanation about foundations of curriculum, it helps me a lot on my fs 4 workbook…God Bless…

    1. Hi, Yuni. Yes and that is the purpose of the school. If the purpose or existence of the school is clear to the stakeholders, then they know what should be the subject matters/topics for each foundation.

    1. Hello, Rhizza. Yes, I used to be the Asst. Prof. 2 and the Director of the Curriculum & Instructional Materials Development Office. I was in the College of Arts & Humanities from 1995 to 1999, if I am not mistaken.

  30. hi ma’am. can i ask a question?
    How can we possibly address the problem of continuously deteriorating phil. education using psychological, sociological and philosophical theories and principles?
    you will be of great help to me mam in answering this.. thanks much and god bless

    1. Hi, Cel. Pease read the article and from there you can reflect and answer the question. But here is my answer:
      1. philosophy – use your concept of philosophy, particularly in social reconstructionism to change the way people think and how to help others.
      2. psychology – use psychological theories that can help students how to learn more or how to increase their academic performance.
      3. sociology – use this in solving societal problems that are detrimental to our education.

      if you use these three principles and theories, the educational system will be uplifted.

  31. I’ve been reading all the comments and I must say it’s been a great enlightenment. Thank you Mary and all who also commented. My question is, is there a difference in Curriculum development and Curriculum content. And if there is a difference, what are the psychological factors that underpin curriculum content?

    1. Dear Edward, Curriculum content refers to topics or subjects to be studied while the curriculum development is a process on how to develop the curriculum particularly the contents (topics or subject matters). As to your last question, that is too long to answer. Perhaps, I will write a book about it.

    1. Hi, Mhel. Thank you for the feedback. Yeah, you are right. So, I told the admin and he said that you simply refresh it or go directly to the site and look for “search icon” at the right corner above. Then type the complete title of the article and press enter. If you can’t find it, please do it manually by going to the bar on the left side. Click education, then Curriculum and instruction then scroll down and look for the article and then click the title. It is a long process but be patient. Thanks so much,

  32. Hi Mary!Please help me to explain the sociological and cultural foundation of curriculum.Can you please cite me an example how does it influence in school or what are the possible changes if we know about this curriculum.

    1. Hi, Cherry. Please read the article and my answers to the comments. The question must be personally answered by yourself.

  33. What is psychologization? Is happening in the philippine context? how extensive is its permeation now into the educational system?

  34. hi mam, your article is really interesting …one of our class requirements to construct an english curriculum in primary grade.i don’t have ideas on how to do that…

    1. Hi, Fau. Please be guided accordingly by what you read and what you learned from your professors. Your professor can help you. God bless.

  35. plz mam tell me how can i explain phychological foundation in class;because my presentation is very near.can u help me plz?

  36. hi ma’am mary, gud morning hope you will read this message for so that i will be able to understand more about this matter. i have something to ask and clarify.
    state the values and beliefs about the nature of learning?
    how History and society influenced curriculum?
    can you give me some idea about this matter.reply asap.

    arvin ceblano.

    1. Hello, Arvin. Sorry for a much delayed reply. If you read the article above and the comments, I’m sure you were able to answer. But the values and beliefs about the nature of learning is off-topic. It is not covered in my article.

  37. Good Eve Mam i’d like to as why it is important to know the sociological and psychological foundation of education? how does each component [rovide importance?

  38. Hi Mam Mary, kindly answer my question articulate your understanding of the sociological and psychological foundations of education that is grounded in the knowledge gained from class readings and discussions. Thank you very much Mam and More Power

    1. Hello, Jane. Sorry for a late reply but the questions can be answered by yourself. Please read and understand the article and the comments and try to relate them in your experience or classroom situation.

  39. Winnie, the influence of child psychology/psycho-social theory to curriculum development is so huge that I didn’t have time to write.

    1. How are education stakeholders(teachers, learner,private sector,civil society) involved developing the curriculum policies?
      is there evidence of thier involment having made a difference?

  40. hi.. can you give me sample situations on how these axioms are realized in the school setting. ?? 10 axioms for curriculum designers

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