Thesis Writing: What to Write in Chapter 5

This article simply tells what a budding researcher must include in Chapter 5-the Summary. It also includes the tense of the verb and the semantic markers which are predominantly used in writing the summary, conclusions and recommendations.

For others, writing the Chapter 5 is the easiest part in thesis writing, but there are groups of students who would like to know more about it. If you are one of them, this article is purposely written for you.

A. Writing the Summary

Your summary may include the following: (1) objectives of the study; (2) statement of the problem; (3) respondents; (4) sampling procedures; (5) method/s of research employed; (6) statistical treatment/s applied or hypotheses tested, if there is any; (7); and results.

If you notice, all the parts mentioned above are already included in your Chapters 1- 4. So, the challenge is on how you are going to briefly write and present it.

First, you must go direct to the point in highlighting the main points. There is no need to thoroughly explain the details. You must avoid copying and pasting what you have written in the previous chapters. Just KISS (keep it short and simple)!

Then, write sentences in simple past and use always the passive voice construction rather than the active voice. You must also be familiar with the different semantic markers.

When I was enrolled in Academic Writing in my masters degree, I learned that there are semantic markers which can be used in order not to repeat the same words or phrases such as additionally, also, further, in addition to, moreover, contrary to, with regard to, as regards, however, finally, during the past ___ years, from 1996 to 2006, after 10 years, as shown in, as presented in, consequently, nevertheless, in fact, on the other hand, subsequently and nonetheless..

Next, you may use the following guide questions to check that you have not missed anything in writing the summary:

  1. What is the objective of the study?;
  2. Who/what is the focus of the study?;
  3. Where and when was the investigation conducted?;
  4. What method of research was used?;
  5. How were the research data gathered?;
  6. How were the respondents chosen?;
  7. What statistical tools were applied to treat the gathered data? ; and
  8. Based on the data presented and analyzed, what findings can you summarize?

Finally, organize the summary of the results of your study according to the way the questions are sequenced in the statement of the problem.

B. Writing the Conclusions

Once you have written the summary, draw out a conclusion from each finding or result. It can be done per question or you may arrange the questions per topic or sub-topic, if there is any. But if your research is quantitative in nature, answer directly the research question and tell if the hypothesis is rejected or accepted based on the findings.

As to grammar, make sure that you use the present tense of the verb because it consists of general statement of the theory or the principle newly derived from the present study. So, don’t be confused because in your summary, you use past tense while in conclusion, you use present tense.

C. Writing the Recommendations

The recommendations must contain practical suggestions that will improve the situation or solve the problem investigated in the study. First, it must be logical, specific, attainable and relevant. Second, it should be addressed to persons, organizations, or agencies directly concerned with the issues or to those who can immediately implement the recommended solutions. Third, present another topic which is very relevant to the present study that can be further investigated by future researchers. But never recommend anything that is not part of your study or not being mentioned in your findings.

After organizing your thoughts as to what would- be the contents of your recommendations, you should write it using the imperative mood of the verb. Imperative mood is to express a request or a command. So, the tense is also simple present tense.

However, there are universities especially in the Philippines that require a specific thesis format to be followed by students. Thus, as a student, you must conform to the prescribed format of your college or university.


Nordquist, R. n.d. Imperative Mood. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from

© 2014 July 29 M. G. Alvior

Cite this article as: Alvior, Mary G. (July 29, 2014). Thesis Writing: What to Write in Chapter 5. In SimplyEducate.Me. Retrieved from

80 thoughts on “Thesis Writing: What to Write in Chapter 5”

    1. Hi, Tayo! Thanks so much for appreciating my work. God bless to your research endeavor.

  1. Hello! In writing the conclusion, you need to base your conclusion to the findings. For example, if you have 5 questions in the statement of the problem, it means that you will also have 5 conclusions. Each question has a result and a conclusion. However, if your questions are very specific and they can be grouped together as a topic, then, you can draw out the conclusion from the topic or sub-topic, if there is any. I wish that I was able to answer your question. Thank you for reading our articles. I hope that you will also share our site to your family, friends, and colleagues.

    God bless!

    1. Hi, Lolo! How are you? Thank you so much for your appreciation. Please share this site to your friends and students who would like to learn about research, education, statistics, health, and environment.

    1. Dear Frakhan,

      Thank you so much for reading my article. As to your request, I think I have to write an article about it. Please give one week (more or less) to write to answer you by writing an article. God bless.

  2. This write up is a life saver, after studying it my chapter five was written with ease and confidence…Thanks!!

    1. Hi, Jaxx! I’m glad that I was able to help you. I wish that you also share this site to your family and friends.

      God bless to your research endeavour! You may also write a portion of your studies in this site.

    1. Hi, Martins!

      I’m so happy that I was able to help you. I wish that you can also contribute the findings of the studies you conducted in this site. God bless you, too.

  3. Hello, ma’am Mary! Good day. I would like to ask how would I write a conclusion if my summarization for the chapters 1 to 4 are based on the happenings when my groupmates and I were doing the chapters 1 to 4? For example: my summarization is, “We went to our chosen company to pass our proposed system, then we found out that they needed, Employee Management System, Recruitment Management System and Task Management System. at the middle of the month of July our group started working for the documentation. Chapter 2 is about the system requirements, chapter 3, 4 so on.” I hope you read my comment, I just loved your site because it helped me a lot. Although some weren’t clear to me, like the question I just asked. Hoping that you can make me understand the chapter 5 better. Thank you once again and God Bless. 🙂

    1. Hi, Luke! How are you? It seems that your paper does not follow a typical thesis writing format in which chapter 2 is the review of related literature and studies; chapter 3 is the research design; and chapter 4 is the results and discussion, Well, it is up to your professor or school. If that’s the given format, it is ok.

      In chapter 5, you are asking me how to write a conclusion if your chapters are arranged per topic and to the sequence of events when you were writing or doing your paper. Or should I say, it’s according to the needs of the company which you discovered when you submitted your proposal. If that’s the case, I would suggest that write your conclusion according to their needs. So, what generalization or conclusion can you make in their employee management system and so on.

      I wish I was able to help you. God bless and please share this site to all your classmates, family and friends. If you have other questions, please don’t hesitate to write me. You may also explore this site because there are other tips or articles written about research, education, statistics and environment. Thank you so much.

  4. Hi mam, can you explain to me what will i do to explain how to do conclusion and recommendation(chapter6 on us) on my classmates?
    I hope that you can help me for my report & also for our baby thesis. Thanks

    1. Hi, Joemarie. Please read the thread of conversations or comments in this article. I already explained how it must be done. If there are still that you don’t understand, please ask specific questions. Thanks.

    1. Hi, Liam. Hypothesis and conclusions are different. However, in your conclusion, you may also include in there your findings of the study in general. So, you can derive the conclusion from the hypothesis. You don’t simply copy and paste it, but you have to tell or state it using other words. Also, make it sure that the hypothesis you are referring to is the one that is already being tested by statistics. For other information, please read the thread of the conversations and comments of this article. I already gave the explanations to other readers. Thanks.

    1. Hi, Zoe. It depends but in my opinion, it should be 150 to 300 words. Just make it sure that your conclusions talk about your findings or results of your study.

  5. Hi, Angelou Belocura! It’s my pleasure. Actually, it is easy. for as long as you have the results of your study, and a conclusion, just make a comment on how your study can help other researchers or how it can improve the situations or life of your participants.

  6. Hi, Angelou Belocura! It’s my pleasure. Actually, it is easy. For as long as you have the results of your study, and a conclusion, just make a comment on how your study can help other researchers or how it can improve the situations or life of your participants.

  7. Thank you very much for these information’s, it really helped me a lot! Godbless you always and more power!!!

    1. Hi, Cristina. You are welcome. May I know the school or university you came from? Thanks.

      Dr. Mary

  8. Your article is very illuminating. However is I possible to get more than one conclusion from one finding?

    1. Hi, Abiona! Yeah, if it is long, why not? But you can also make it as a long paragraph using connectors like and, but, however, in addition, likewise, furthermore, etc., in order to have only one conclusion per result/finding.

  9. Hi, Ms Mary, may I kindly know what is a difference between the abstract portion of the paper and the summary? Thank, hope you could reply on this.

    1. Hi, Archie. In writing the Chapter 5, the summary must be longer than the abstract that you have. As to abstract, Dr. Regoniel has written articles about it. Please check this out, and this, .

      Summary is at least 1/3 of the original text. For example, if a paragraph is 100 words, you have to make it as a 30 to 35-word paragraph or (33.3 words to be exact).

  10. Does this apply for both quantitative and qualitative study? Don’t quantitative study need to base the Chapter 5 from each table in Chapter 4? Hope you can immediately answer. Thanks a lot!

    1. Hi, Andrea. Yes you can follow this in both qualitative and quantitative research. But if your school has its own format, please follow your format. Sorry for a much delayed reply because I’m getting sick lately and adjusting to my new job.

  11. I realy appreciate your write up ma…You were precise and nailed everything to the point…I normally consult up to 5tips since writing my thesis but this is the first time am using just one…Love you plenty and God bless

    1. Thanks so much, Boche from Nigeria. Please pray for me that my health is always good in order to write and answer the questions in this site. God bless to your endeavour.

  12. Hi,Mary…am doing corrections for my thesis.Do I write my findings in point form or prose? What’s are apa guideline,can’t seem to get it
    Thanks and blessinngs.

    1. Hi, Nancy. Since you are working for Chapter 5, and writing the findings, I think it is best for you to follow the format of your university. But if I were you I will write the findings in point form and not in prose. That is if you are referring to point form as numbered or bulleted form and you highlight only the important parts of the results or findings of the study.

  13. Hello ,
    How I can compose the previous studies to the result in conclusion, when I have hypothesis and nail hypothesis and research questions . could you you help ?? thanks

  14. Hi, Azar. Maybe null hypothesis you are referring to and not nail. Previous studies? What do you mean? I think you are referring to the results of other researches and you want to connect it to the results of your study in the conclusion. In my own opinion, it should not be the case. In writing a conclusion, you should not mention about the work of other researchers or the results of the previous studies. Just say something on the results of your study and make a concluding statement. As to your hypothesis, it must be written negatively and so, we call it as null. Your conclusion should be based on your answer to the null hypothesis. Thank you.

    1. Hello, Mae. I wish but my time is not enough to write. Please pray for me to be given good health and a huge amount of time to write.

  15. Hi again.. can you please suggest 3 statement of the problem to my thesis? The title of my thesis is Architecture: For housing project in (let’s keep the place a secret 🙂 ) that will ameliorate the surroundings of the informal settlers… I hope you would help me with this because I get confuse some part of my thesis if there’s any related to my title. Thanks 🙂

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